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考研英语中英释义熟词僻义
更新时间:2019-02-27 14:57   来源:未知 作者:中国考试网2 点击:
考研英语中英释义熟词僻义

熟词僻义是很多考研同学较为头痛的问题,市面有各式各样的单词书,鲜有关于熟词僻义的资料,网上的也是很零碎的总结。鉴于当时自己准备考研英语的苦恼,就决定把自己总结的和网上尽可能能找到的考研熟词僻义全部整理出来,并附带英文解释,同时也是提升自己的一个好方法。收集完所有考研的熟词僻义后,再一一查阅牛津、新牛津、朗文、柯林斯四本英语字典的英文释义,想想哪一个释义是大家都容易忽略的,最后从四本字典中选出一个最具代表性、最易懂、陌生单词最少的英文解释。由于每个人的基础不一样,所以本资料不能保证所有的生僻释义是你不知道的,因此从全稿230页左右中摘选出一部分作为《考研英语熟词僻义大当家——试读版》的电子档供大家了解,由各自衡量本资料的含金量,而不是自己胡乱吹嘘,考研时间本就紧迫,还忽悠别人看没用的资料,那是不道德的。

所有的阅读技巧都是建立在认识单词的基础上,再找套路提高自己的分数。阅读文章时不要把单词割裂出来,而是根据整个句子、整个段落或整篇文章的语境来分析单词的。碰到自己不认识的单词(熟词僻义),一般是先按自己记忆的常见基本释义去理解整句话,若语义不通顺,再凭自己的语感、综合知识储备或好的语文功底用适当的意思填进去理解。但这样做容易出现三个问题:第一,并不是所有人的语感都好,或综合知识面足够广,又或语文功底扎实,阅读长难句时就会显得有些困难;第二,用你以为的“适当的”意思填进去,可能扭曲整个句子的感情色彩和意思,阅读题会影响理解,导致选出错误答案,而翻译题,翻译的准确性直接影响你的分数;第三,考试时间才三个小时,在考场怎么可能让我们去花大把的时间去琢磨某个单词的生僻意思,有些单词还能靠平时记忆的基本释义猜出来,有些单词,没有接触过,怕是很难联想出来。除此之外,我想说的是,熟词僻义并不是真的生僻,一是因为平时记忆的时候很多人只记住了最好记的、最常用的释义,而其它的释义往往就被忽视掉了,比如:

二是因为有些单词书、单词软件只挑选了某个单词的部分释义。这两点说明学英语除了坚持记单词很重要,记全单词释义也是很重要的,

记完单词再去做真题,你会发现,有些单词我们心里知道是什么意思,但是读一个完整的句子就不知道如何翻译,如何用恰当的中文表达出来。很多时候都是熟词僻义的导致的,对于熟词僻义,很多过来人都建议同学边刷真题边记单词并尝试看单词英文释义,或者是记完一轮考纲单词再去刷真题,刷真题时碰到陌生单词再去查字典,那么,问题又来了,查单词是用纸质词典还是电子词典?用纸质书嫌麻烦,手机下个词典,估计“查词五分钟,刷微博、朋友圈两小时”。虽说看单词英文释义的确是一个不错的方法,但对于时间紧迫的应试考试,且不排除你的自制力好的情况下,花大把的时间查单词,似乎有点得不偿失。所以我就决定自己总结一本涵盖考研所有的熟词僻义,且带有英文释义,这样就能减少你英语的复习时间。于是怀着“大当家”的心态整理出《考研英语熟词僻义大当家》,尽可能全面又不鸡肋,让大家使用该资料能对考研英语的熟词僻义一网打尽。

对于考研熟词僻义个人有四点建议

1) 坚持记单词

2) 单词释义要记全

3) 下定决心看英文释义

4) 精读大量文章(即刷真题)

本资料有何效用?

l 可作为英语词汇辅助书,重点关注考研单词盲区,攻克考研熟词僻义。

l 减少猜单词的次数,提高阅读速度。

l 增加翻译准确性。

l 优化写作句子。

强烈推荐看英文释义,就和我们小时候学习中文一样,查新华字典看中文解释,看其基本意思,看其搭配。查英语单词也一样,看单词的搭配、用法、感情色彩等等。对单词了解的越深,阅读文章的速度也就越快,翻译也就越准确,写作使用的词汇也更高级。

资料最后附有“艾宾浩斯遗忘曲线的复习表格”,本资料虽然页数有230页,但单词都是常见的,按照表格记忆——>复习——>记忆——>复习,能高效持久的记忆完1000多个单词,后面的复习表格行数也是绰绰有余。

由于本人水平有限,内容较多,时间仓促,书中不妥之处在所难免,诚望广大读者不吝赐教,提出宝贵意见。

A

about 关于;大约

Ø 向相反方向,转身,掉头so as to face in the opposite direction

Ø [表达在特定场所的位置]在里面各处,四下used to express location in a particular place

•He quickly turned about and walked away. 他一个转身就走了。

•a thief about in the hotel.在旅馆里四下行窃的小偷。

absence 缺席

Ø 缺乏;没有the lack of something or the fact that it does not exist

•In the absence of any evidence, the police had to let Myers go. 警察没有证据,只好把迈尔斯放了。

accent 口音

Ø 显出,突出;强调to make something more noticeable so that people will pay attention to it

Ø 重音the part of a word that you should emphasize when you say it

•Use make-up to accent your cheekbones and eyes. 用化妆来突出颧骨和眼部。

•In the word ‘dinner’ the accent is on the first syllable. dinner一词的重音在第一音节上。

account 账户

Ø 叙述,描写,报道a written or spoken deion that says what happens in an event or process

Ø on account of sth因为某事,由于某事because of something else, especially a problem or difficulty

Ø 重要性importance

Ø 解释,说明to give a satisfactory explanation of why something has happened or why you did something

Ø 认为,看作consider or regard in a specified way

•He was too shocked to give an account of what had happened. 他因受惊过度而无法描述所发生的事情。

•She was told to wear flat shoes, on account of her back problem. 因为背部有问题,她被建议穿平底鞋。

•money was of no account to her.金钱对她无关紧要。

•Can you account for your movements on that night? 你能说明一下你那天晚上的行踪吗?

•he accounted himself the unluckiest man alive.他认为自己是世上最倒霉的人。

act 行为,行动

Ø 【律】(议会、国会等的书面)法令,条例a written ordinance of Parliament,Congress,etc.

Ø act as充当,担任fulfil the function or serve the purpose of

Ø 假装;装腔作势to pretend to have feelings, qualities etc that are different from your true ones

Ø 起作用;见效take effect;have a particular effect

•the 1989 Children's Act.1989年《儿童法》。

•they need volunteers to act as foster-parents.他们需要志愿者来充当养父母。

•When he’s angry, he acts the fool. 他一生气就装傻。

•bacteria act on proteins and sugar.细菌对蛋白质和糖起作用。

acquire 获得;取得

Ø 学到,习得,培养(技能,习惯,品质)learn or develop(a skill,habit,or quality)

Ø an acquired taste逐渐养成的爱好something that people only begin to like after they have tried it a few times

•He spent years acquiring his skills as a surgeon. 他花了许多年时间学习外科医生的技能。

•pumpkin pie is an acquired taste.喜欢吃南瓜馅饼是后天养成的嗜好。

address 地址

Ø (多指正式)对.….讲话,致词speak to(a person or an assembly),typically in a formal way

Ø 诉说,书面提交(address something to)say or write remarks or a protest to

Ø 考虑处理(问题)think about and begin to deal with(an issue or problem)

•she addressed the open-air meeting 她在一露天集会上致词

•address your complaints to the Trading Standards Board.向贸易标准委员会提交你的投诉。

•a fundamental problem has still to be addressed.还有一个基本问题要处理。

adjust 适应

Ø 整理〔穿戴物〕if you adjust something you are wearing, you move it slightly so that it is neater, more comfortable etc

•He paused to adjust his spectacles. 他停下来整整眼镜。

advise 建议

Ø (尤指正式地、官方地)通知inform(someone)about a fact or situation,typically in a formal or official way

•you will be advised of the requirements 具体要求会通知你的

afloat 飘浮的

有偿债能力;能维持下去having enough money to pay debts; able to survive

•They will have to borrow £10 million next year, just to stay afloat . 明年他们得举债1 000万英镑才能维持下去。

after 在……之后

Ø 与…对照;与…对比in contrast to sth

Ø 由于;既然because of something that happened earlier

Ø 追求,寻求in pursuit or quest of

Ø 具有…的风格,模仿in the same style as a particular painter, musician etc

•It was pleasantly cool in the house after the sticky heat outside. 与户外的湿热相比,屋里真是凉爽惬意。

•I’m not surprised he walked out, after the way she treated him. 她那样对待他,所以他离开我并不感到吃惊。

•most of them are after money.他们中大多数人在追求金钱。

•a painting after Rembrandt 仿伦勃朗风格的画

air 空气

Ø 摆架子;装腔作势a way of behaving that shows that sb thinks that they are more important, etc. than they really are

Ø 神态;样子;风度;气氛if something or someone has an air of confidence, mystery etc, they seem confident, mysterious etc

Ø 公开发表〔看法〕to express your opinions publicly

Ø 播放,广播to broadcast a programme on television or radio

•I hate the way she puts on airs . 我不喜欢她那装腔作势的样子。

•She looked at him with a determined air. 她看着他,神情坚毅。

•Staff will get a chance to ask questions and air their views. 员工将有机会提问并发表意见。

•The program is due to air next month. 这个节目将于下月播出。

album 相簿

Ø (唱片或盒式磁带等上的)音乐专辑,歌曲专辑;歌集唱片a collection of pieces of music that have been recorded on one record, CD or cassette

•the band's latest album 这个乐队的最新专辑

alien 外星人

Ø 陌生(而令人烦扰或讨厌)的unfamiliar and disturbing or distasteful

Ø 外国的,异域的;异族的belonging to another country or race

•the alien environment of the city 城里陌生的环境。

•alien cultures 异域文化

anchor 锚;抛锚

Ø 电视〕新闻节目主持人,主播someone who reads the news on TV and introduces news reports

Ø 支柱;靠山someone or something that provides a feeling of support and safety

Ø 扎根于〔某种体系、生活方式等〕to be strongly connected with a particular system, way of life etc

•Dan Rather, anchor of the CBC Evening News 哥伦比亚广播公司《晚间新闻》主持人丹•拉瑟

•Dad was the anchor of the family. 爸爸是家里的顶梁柱。

•John’s outlook has always been anchored in the political mainstream. 约翰的观点一直植根于主流政治思想。

answer 回答

Ø 适合;符合;比得上;相配to be suitable for sth; to match sth

Ø (地位、作用等方面的)对应物;相当的人(answer to)a thing or person regarded as being of equivalent status or fulfilling the same role as something or someone from another place

Ø 对...负责;因.…受到谴责(answer for)be responsible or to blame for

•entrepreneurship is necessary to answer the needs of national and international markets.满足国内和国际市场的需要必须要有企业开拓精神。

•the press called her Britain's answer to Marilyn Monroe.新闻界称她为英国的玛里莲•梦露。

•if you persist in clinging to me in that way I will not answer for the consequences如果你坚持用那样的方式缠我,我不会对后果负责

argue 争论

Ø 论证;争辩to state, giving clear reasons, that something is true, should be done etc

Ø 显示出,表明to show that something clearly exists or is true

•She argued the case for changing the law. 她提出论据,力主修改法律。

•The statement argues a change of attitude by the management. 这则声明表明管理层态度的转变。

arm 手臂

Ø 以武器装备,武装to provide weapons for yourself, an army, a country etc in order to prepare for a fight or a war

Ø 提供;配备,装备to provide all the information, skills, or equipment you need to do something

•The local farmers have armed themselves with rifles and pistols. 当地的农场主用步枪和手枪武装自己。

•Arm yourself with all the facts you need to argue your case. 你要准备好证明你观点所需的全部论据。

arrival 到来;到达

Ø (新发展、新现象或新产品的)出现the emergence or appearance of a new development,phenomenon,or product

•the arrival of democracy.民主的出现。

article 文章

Ø 物品,物件〔尤指整套中的一件〕formal a thing, especially one of a group of things

Ø (法律文件或协议中的)条款,条文,规定(多指概述一规则或规定的)。a separate clause or paragraph of a legal document or agreement,typically one outlining a single rule or regulation

•household articles 家居用品

•he is already in articles 他已经按合同规定在实习了

author 作者;作家

Ø (尤指计划或主意的)创始者,发起人an originator or creator of something,especially a plan or idea

Ø 创作,写作,撰写to be the writer of a book, report etc

•the authors of the peace plan.和平计划的创始人。

•she has authored several articles on wildlife.她写了几篇关于野生动物的文章。

authority 权力;权威

Ø 官方机构;政府部门an official organization or a government department that has the power to make decisions, and has particular responsibilities

Ø 〔正式的〕许可,授权official permission to do something

•the local 地方政府部门

•The attack took place under the authority of the UN Security Council. 这次进攻是在联合国安全理事会授权下进行的。

automatic 自动的

Ø 不自觉的,无意识的,不假思索的done without thinking, especially because you have done the same thing many times before

Ø 〔根据规定或法律〕必然发生的,自动的something that is automatic always happens as a result of something you have done, especially because of a rule or law

•Practise the breathing techniques until they become automatic. 练习这些呼吸技巧直到成为无意识的动作。

•Littering results in an automatic fine. 乱扔垃圾必然要罚款。

attribute 归属;把…归于

Ø 特性,特质,属性a quality or feature, especially one that is considered to be good or useful

•What attributes should a good manager possess? 一名优秀的经理应该具备哪些素质?

average 平均的

Ø 〔数量〕中等的,适中的an amount or quantity is not unusually big or small

Ø 平常的,普通的having qualities that are typical of most people or things

•They have an average-size front garden and a large rear garden. 他们有一个中等大小的前院和一个大后院。

•The average American has not even thought about next year’s election. 普通的美国人甚至还没有想过明年的选举。

bad 坏的

Ø 很,非常〔很多人认为此用法是错的〕a word used to mean ‘badly’ that many people think is incorrect

Ø (疼痛、危险或其他不良后果)严重的;厉害的(of something causing pain,danger,or other unwelcome consequences)severe or intense

Ø 无价值的;伪造的worthless;not valid

•I need that money bad. 我急需那笔钱。

•bad headaches 剧烈的头痛

•he ran up 87 bad cheques.他开了87张空头支票。

balance 平衡

Ø (应付与所付的)结欠,差额the difference between an amount due and an amount paid

Ø 抵偿;权衡;比较offset or compare the value of(one thing)with another

•the holiday balance must be paid by 8 weeks before departure.度假应付费用的差额必须在离开前8周付清。

•the cost of obtaining such information needs to be d against its benefits.

获取这种信息的代价需与其好处相比较。

bargain 便宜货

Ø (双方或多方)协定;协议an agreement between two or more people or groups as to what each will do for the other

Ø 预料,指望(bargain for/on)be prepared for;expect

Ø 卑鄙的,下流的,无耻的not having good moral principles

•bargains between political parties supporting the government.支持政府的各政党间的协定。

•I got more information than I'd bargained for 我获得了比预期更多的信息

•base attitudes and desires 卑鄙的态度和欲望

behave 表现

Ø (机器)运转,(自然现象)起作用(of a machine or natural phenomenon)work or function in a specified way

•each car behaves differently.每辆车的运转情况都有差别。

behaviour 行为;举止;态度

Ø 〔科学上的〕表现方式,活动方式;特点the things that something in science normally does

Ø (机器的)运行方式(自然现象的)起作用的方式the way in which a machine or natural phenomenon works or functions

•the behaviour of human chromosomes 人类染色体的特点

•the erratic behaviour of the old car.那辆旧车不稳定的性能。

believe 相信;信任

Ø 认为,以为,猜想hold(something)as an opinion:think or suppose

•I believe we've already met 我想我们见过面。

benefit 利益;有益于

Ø (国家或保险计划按规定支付的)补助费,救济金,抚恤金,保险金payment made by the state or an insurance scheme to someone entitled to receive it,for example an unemployed person

•a state benefit 政府救济金

betray 背叛

Ø 泄露(机密,信息)treacherously reveal(secrets or information)

Ø <喻>显露,暴露;证明reveal the presence of;be evidence of

•many of those employed by diplomats betrayed secrets and sold ciphers.外交官们雇佣的人当中有很多都向外泄露机密、出卖密码。

•she drew a deep breath that betrayed her indignation.她深深地吸了一口气,这说明她很愤怒。

bill 钞票;清单

Ø 议案,法案a written proposal for a new law, that is brought to a parliament so that it can be discussed

Ø 把(人或项目)列入节目单,安排...演出,预定(一般作be billed)list(a person or event)in a programme

Ø 宣传(某人或某物)(bill someone/thing as)describe someone or something in a particular way,especially in order to advertise them or emphasize their importance

•The senator introduced a bill that would increase the minimum wage. 那位参议员提交了一个拟提高最低工资的法案。

•they were billed to appear but did not show up.按计划他们是要出场的,但没有露面。

•he was billed as the new Sean Connery.他被作为“肖恩•康纳里再世”来宣传。

blank 空白的;空虚的

Ø 无表情的,木然的a face or look shows no emotion, understanding, or interest

Ø 掩盖;使模糊不清;使显得空白cover up,obscure,or cause to appear blank or empty

•we were met by blank looks.我们看到的是茫然的表情。

•electronic countermeasures blanked out the radar signals.电子对抗手段消隐了雷达信号。

body 身体;主体

Ø 团体,机构,群体a group of people who work together to do a particular job or who are together for a particular purpose

Ø 大量;大批a large or substantial amount of something;a mass or collection of something

Ø 赋予(抽象事物)以形体,使具体化(body something forth)give material form to something abstract

•The British Medical Association is the doctors’ professional body. 英国医学会是医生的专业团体。

•large bodies of seawater 汪洋大海。

•he bodied forth the traditional Prussian remedy for allills.他把传统的普鲁士药方用于治疗各种疾病。

book 书籍

Ø 成册[成套]的东西a set of things such as stamps, matches, or tickets, held together inside a paper cover

Ø 账目,账簿,会计簿written records of the financial accounts of a business

Ø 预订,预购,预约to make arrangements to stay in a place, eat in a restaurant, go to a theatre etc at a particular time in the future

•a cheque book 支票簿

•An accountant will examine the company’s books. 一名会计师将给公司查账。

•To get tickets, you have to book in advance . 你必须提前订购才能买到票。

boss 老板

Ø 对…发号施令,指挥〔尤指无权这样做时〕to tell people to do things, give them orders etc, especially when you have no authority to do it

•Five-year-old girls love to boss people around. 五岁的女孩就爱支使别人。

brain 脑袋

Ø 智力;脑力;逻辑思维能力the ability to learn quickly and think about things in a logical and intelligent way

•It doesn't take much brain to work out that both stories can't be true. 不必费多大脑筋就知道,两种说法不可能都是真的。

brand 商标,牌子

Ø 归为 (不好的事物)If someone is branded as something bad, people think they are that thing.

Ø 给…加上〔往往是不公的〕恶名(与上面是同一个意思)to describe someone or something as a very bad type of person or thing, often unfairly

Ø (独特的)一种,一类a particular type or kind of something

Ø 独特的个性;自成一格的形象a particular identity or image regarded as an asset

Ø (用烙铁)打烙印于(动物、囚犯或奴隶身上);以烙铁打标记。mark(an animal or,in former times,a criminal or slave)with a branding iron

Ø 全新的;崭新的(brand new) completely new

•anyone who says anything bad about the country is branded as a traitor

任何说这个国家一点坏话的人都被说成是卖国贼。

•Stealing that money has branded Jim for life – no one will trust him again. 吉姆偷了那笔钱,就一辈子背上了恶名,再也没有人信任他。

•they entertained millons with their inimitable brand of comedy.他们以自己那种无法模仿的喜剧让千百万人快乐。

•you can stll invent your own career,be your own brand.你仍然可以构筑自己的职业生涯,保持自己特有的个性。

•Each cow was branded with the ranch’s logo. 每头母牛都烙上了该牧场的标记。

•a brand new computer 全新的计算机

business 商业;[贸易] 生意

Ø 事业,职业;行业a person's regular occupation,profession,or trade

Ø (必须处理的)事务,职责work that has to be done or matters that have to be attended

Ø <非正式>受欢迎的人(行动或事物)(the business)a very enjoyable or popular person,activity,or thing

Ø <非正式>系列事件(尤指丑闻或有损名誉的事)a series of events,typically a scandalous or discreditable one

Ø 公司,企业,商业机构an organization such as a company, shop, or factory that produces or sells goods or provides a service

•she had to do a lot of smiling in her business 干她那行不得不多陪笑脸

•let's get down to business.让我们言归正传吧。

•spring sking is the business.春季滑雪是受欢迎的运动。

•they must find out about the blackmailing business.他们必须查清那件敲诈勒索事件。

•They don’t know how to run a business. 他们不知道如何经营企业。

buy 

Ø 接受,相信〔尤指不大可能属实的事〕to believe something that someone tells you, especially when it is not likely to be true

•I am not prepared to buy the claim that the ends justify the means 我不准备接受只要目的正当就可以不择手段的说法

C

cake 蛋糕

Ø <喻>(某特定情境下被视为可分割或共享的)钱或资产总额(the cake)the amount of money or assets available in a particular context and regarded as something to be divided up or shared

Ø (厚物,粘物)结块(of a thick or sticky substance)dry or harden into a solid mass

•you have not received a fair slice of the education cake.你没有从教育这个蛋糕中分得合理的一份。

•the blood under his nose was beginning to cake.他鼻子下的血开始结块。

camp 露营

Ø 〔尤指政治上的〕阵营,派别,集团a group of people or organizations who have the same ideas or principles, especially in politics

•the extreme right-wing camp of the party 该党的极右派阵营

calculate 计算

Ø 认定,以为;猜测,判断determine by reasoning,experience,or common sense;reckon or judge

Ø 预期,指望;依靠(calculate on)include as an essential element in one's plans

Ø 打算,计划(一般作be calculated to do something)intend(an action)to have a particular effect

•I was bright enough to calculate that she had been on vacation.我聪明地判断出她刚度完假。

•he may have calculated on maximizing pressure for policy revision.他可能指望最大限度地施压以修改政策。

•his last words were calculated to wound her.他最后的那些话是有意伤害她的。

calling 召;呼唤

Ø (对某种生活或职业的)强烈冲动,欲望;使命感,天职a strong urge towards a particular way of life or career;a vocation

Ø 专业;职业a profession or occupation

•those who have a special calling to minister to others'needs.那些有满足别人需求的特别使命感之人。

•he considered engineering one of the highest possible callings.他认为工程师可能是最佳职业之一。

cancer 癌症

Ø 弊病,社会恶习an evil influence that affects a lot of people and is difficult to stop

•Drug abuse is the cancer of our society. 吸毒是我们社会的毒瘤。

cap 盖;帽

Ø 〔收入、支出或借贷金额的〕最高限额an upper limit that is put on the amount of money that someone can earn, spend, or borrow

Ø 覆盖,笼罩(常作be capped)form a covering layer or top part of

Ø 胜过;超过;盖过(前面的故事、评论或笑话)follow or reply to(a story,remark,•a cap on local council spending 地方市政会支出的最高限额

Ø or joke)by producing a better or more apposite one

•snow-capped mountains.山顶积雪的群山。

•he prayed no wit would cap his remark with some repartee.他祈祷没人能超过他略带诡辩的评论。

carry 携带;搬运

Ø 具有〔某种特质〕to have something as a particular quality

Ø 登载;广播;报道if a newspaper, a television or radio broadcast, or a website carries a piece of news, an advertisement etc, it prints it or broadcasts it

Ø 印有;写有if something carries information, the information is written on it

Ø 承担〔责任〕to be responsible for doing something

Ø 销售;出售if a shop/store carries a particular item, it has it for sale

•Degree qualifications carry international recognition. 学位证书获国际认可。

•The national TV network carries religious programmes. 全国电视网播出宗教节目。

•All tobacco products must carry a health warning. 所有的烟草产品必须印有健康警告。

•Each team member is expected to carry a fair share of the workload. 每一位队员都应公平分担工作量。

•We carry a range of educational software. 我们出售各种教育软件。

cat 

Ø 猫科动物a wild animal of the cat family

•the big cats (= lions , tigers , etc.) 大型猫科动物(狮、虎等)

cause 原因;引起;使遭受

Ø 事业,理想,目标an aim, belief or organization that a group of people support or fight for

•My father fought for the Nationalist cause. 我父亲为民族党的事业而奋斗。

ceiling 天花板

Ø <喻>(价格、工资或开支的)最高限度,最大限额,上限。an upper limit,typically one set of prices,wages,or expenditure

Ø 最大飞行高度,升限;云幕高度the greatest height an aircraft can fly at or the level of the clouds

•The government imposed a ceiling on imports of foreign cars. 政府对进口外国汽车的数量设了上限。

•the altitude of the base of a cloud layer 云幂底部高度。

challenge 挑战

Ø 质疑〔某事物的正确性、合法性等〕,对…表示怀疑 to refuse to accept that something is right, fair, or legal

Ø 考验…的技术[能力];激发;激励to test the skills or abilities of someone or something

•a challenge to the legality of the banning order.对禁令合法性的质疑。

•Every teacher ought to be challenging kids to think about current issues. 每一位老师都应激励学生思考当前的问题。

chapter 章,回

Ø (历史上或个人生活中的)特定时期a distinctive period in history or in a person'sife

Ø 一系列;一连串a seres or sequence

Ø 〔俱乐部等大型组织的〕地方分会the local members of a large organization such as a club

•the people are about to begin a new chapter in their history.人民将翻开自己历史上新的篇章。

•the latest episode in a chapter of problems.一系列问题中最新的一个

•the local chapter of the American Legion 美国军团的地方分会

check 检查,核对;<美>支票

Ø 阻碍,制止;抑制to stop something bad from getting worse or continuing to happen

Ø 托运〔行李等〕to leave your bags at an official place so they can be put on a plane or a train, or to take someone’s bags in order to do this

•The police are failing to take adequate measures to check the growth in crime. 警方未能采取适当的措施来阻止犯罪率上升。

•Any luggage over five kilos must be checked. 超过五公斤的行李都必须托运。

climate 气候

Ø 舆论趋势;社会风气the prevailing trend of public opinion or of another aspect of public life

•Small businesses are finding it hard to survive in the present economic climate. 小企业感到在当前的经济形势下很难生存。

cloud 

Ø <喻>阴影;疑团;麻烦;忧虑used to refer to a state or cause of gloom,suspicion,trouble,or worry

Ø 使(事件,心理过程)模糊;使迷惑make(a matter or mental process)unclear or uncertain;confuse

Ø 毁坏,损坏spoil or mar(something)

Ø 显得阴沉(或恐惧、愤怒等);看起来忧愁(或害怕、愤怒等)to show sadness, fear, anger, etc.; to make sb look sad, afraid, angry, etc.

•the only cloud on the immediate horizon is raising a mortgage 眼前惟一的麻烦就是筹措抵押贷款

•don't allow your personal feelings to cloud your judgement.别放任你的个人感情让你判断不清。

•the general election was clouded by violence.大选被暴力事件破坏了。

•Her face clouded over with anger. 她满面怒容。

code 代码,密码

Ø 法典,法规;行为准则,道德规范a set of rules, laws, or principles that tell people how to behave

•The Torah is the basis for all the Jewish laws and their moral code . 《托拉》是所有犹太法律和道德规范的基础。

coin 硬币,钱币

Ø 创造,杜撰〔新词或短语〕to invent a new word or expression, especially one that many people start to use

•The word ‘aromatherapy’ was coined in the 1920s. aromatherapy (芳香疗法)这个词是在20世纪20年代创造出来的。

concern 关心;忧虑

Ø 企业;公司a business or company

•The restaurant is a family concern. 这家餐馆是一个家族企业。

confident 自信的

Ø 确信的;有把握的sure that something will happen in the way that you want or expect

•We are confident next year’s profits will be higher. 我们确信明年的利润会增加。

cook 

Ø <非正式>篡改;伪造alter dishonestly;falsify

Ø 秘密计划;密谋to be being planned in a secret way

Ø 干得很好,干得出色used to say that someone is doing something very well

•The Government was cooking the books and misleading the public. 政府在篡改数据误导公众。

•They’ve got something cooking, and I don’t think I like it. 他们在搞什么鬼把戏,我觉得不会是好事。

•The band’s really cooking tonight. 今晚乐队表现极好。

create 创造

Ø 封[任命]某人为…to officially give someone a special rank or title

Ø <英,非正式>大惊小怪;抱怨make a fuss;complain

•James I created him Duke of Buckingham. 詹姆斯一世封他为白金汉公爵。

•little kids create because they hate being ignored.小孩子常发牢骚是因为他们不愿意被人忽视。

cry 哭;叫

Ø (紧急的)呼吁;恳求an urgent appeal or entreaty

Ø 需求;公众舆论,呼声a demand or opinion expressed by many people

•fund-raisers have issued a cry for help.资金筹集者已发出了求助的呼吁。

•peace became the popular cry.和平已成为公众的呼声。

culture 文化,文明

Ø 【生】(细菌,细胞组织等的)培养the cultivation of bacteria,tissue cells,etc.in an artificial medium containing nutrients

Ø 栽培,种植the practice of growing crops

•the cells proliferate readily in culture.这种细胞培养起来极易增殖。

•clearing forest for rice culture 砍伐森林来种植稻谷

D

damage 损害;损毁

Ø (法院判定的)损害赔偿金an amount of money that a court decides should be paid to sb by the person, company, etc. that has caused them harm or injury

•He was ordered to pay damages totalling £30 000. 他被责令支付总额为3万英镑的损害赔偿金。

dead 死的

Ø 非常,十分very

Ø 直接地;准确地directly or exactly

Ø 完全地completely

Ø 〔胳膊、腿等身体部位〕失去知觉的,麻木的a part of your body that is dead has no feeling in it, especially because the blood supply to it has been stopped

Ø 不活跃的;不被使用的not active or being used

•He was dead good-looking. 他长得极为英俊。

•I stared dead ahead at the doorway. 我直直地盯着门道看。

•He was obviously dead drunk . 他显然醉得不行了。

•When I got up my foot had gone dead where I’d been sitting on it. 我起来的时候,脚上坐着时压到的地方都麻了。

•The luxury car market has been dead in recent months. 近几个月来豪华汽车市场生意萧条。

debate 辩论,争论

Ø 仔细考虑;思考;盘算to think carefully about sth before making a decision

•I debated with myself whether I should tell anyone. 我在反复考虑是否应该告诉别人。

department 部门;系;科;局

Ø 某人的职责范围(或知识范围)to be sth that sb is responsible for or knows a lot about

•Don't ask me about it—that's her department. 这事别问我—那是她的职责范围。

depth 深度

Ø 〔情感的〕强烈程度;〔情况的〕严重程度how strong an emotion is or how serious a situation is

Ø 〔对某一专题所提供的信息的〕深度,详细程度when a lot of details about a subject are provided or considered

Ø (思想的)深奥,深刻complexity and profundity of thought

Ø (感情)深切,深厚intensity of emotion,usually considered as a laudable quality

•People need to realize the depth of the problem. 人们必须认识到这个问题的严重程度。

•Network news coverage often lacks depth. 电视网络上的新闻报道常常缺乏深度。

•the book has unexpected depth.此书的深刻性出人意料。

•a man of compassion and depth of feeling.富有同情心、感情深厚的男人。

develop 成长,发展,壮大

Ø 形成〔观点〕;研制〔产品〕;制订〔规划〕to design or make a new idea, product, system etc over a period of time

Ø 患(病),得病if you develop a disease or illness, or if it develops, you start to have it

Ø 〔问题或困难〕出现,产生;加剧if a problem or difficult situation develops, it begins to happen or exist, or it gets worse

Ø 冲洗,使〔底片〕显影to make a photograph out of a photographic film, using chemicals

Ø 详细阐述〔论点或观点〕to make an argument or idea clearer, by studying it more or by speaking or writing about it in more detail

•Scientists are developing new drugs to treat arthritis. 科学家正在研制治疗关节炎的新药。

•Some alcoholics develop liver disease. 一些酗酒者会患上肝病。

•Trouble is developing in the cities. 城市里骚乱正在上演。

•Did you ever get the pictures developed ? 你到底有没有把照片冲洗出来?

•We will develop a few of these points in the seminar. 在研讨会上我们将详细阐述其中的一些观点。

design 设计

Ø 专为某种目的(或意图)做(或策划)(常作be designed)do or plan(something)with a specific purpose or intention in mind 专为某种目的(或意图)做(或策划)

•the tax changes were designed to stimulate economic growth.改变税收是为了刺激经济增长。

directly 直接地;立即;一…就

Ø 恰好,正好exactly in a particular position or direction

•The girl was sitting directly opposite him. 那女孩坐在他正对面。

discount 折扣

Ø 忽视,不重视〔某事〕to regard something as unlikely to be true or important

•Experts discounted the accuracy of the polls. 专家对这次民意调查的准确性不以为然。

discourage 使气馁

Ø (通过表示不赞成或创造困难而)(试图)阻止prevent or seek to prevent(something)by showing disapproval or creating difficulties

•the plan is designed to discourage the use of private cars.这个计划的目的就是要设法阻止大家使用私家车。

doctor 医生;博士

Ø 篡改(文件,照片);伪造change the content or appearance of(a document or picture)in order to deceive;falsify

Ø 在(饮料、食物等)中加入浓烈(或有害)的成分alter the content of(a drink,food,or substance)by adding strong or harmful ingredients

Ø  〔尤指不是医生的人〕给…治病to give someone medical treatment, especially when you are not a doctor

•the reports could have been doctored.这些报告可能是伪造的。

•he denied doctoring Stephen's drinks.他否认在斯蒂芬的饮料里加了东西。

•Bill doctored the horses with a strong-smelling ointment. 比尔用一种气味强烈的膏药给那些马治病。

dominant 占优势的;支配的

Ø 〔基因〕显性的a dominant gene causes a child to have a particular physical feature or illness, even if it has been passed on from only one parent

•The disease is under the control of a single dominant gene. 这种疾病受一个显性基因控制

earth 地球

Ø 泥土,土壤the substance that plants grow in

Ø 陆地;地面〔与海洋或天空相对〕the hard surface of the world, as opposed to the sea or air

Ø <主英>(某物的)大量;巨额(the earth)to signify a very large amount of something

Ø 把〔电器〕接地to make electrical equipment safe by connecting it to the ground with a wire

•a lump of earth 一团泥土

•They watched the kite fall back to earth. 他们望着风筝落回地面。

•it doesn't have to cost the earth to look good.要漂亮不一定要花大钱。

•Make sure that the machine is properly earthed. 要确保机器妥善接地。

economy 经济

Ø (就经济体制而言)国家;经济制度a country, when you are thinking about its economic system

•Ireland was one of the fastest-growing economies in Western Europe in the 1990s. 在20世纪90年代爱尔兰是西欧经济发展最快的国家之一。

effort 努力

Ø 特别行动work that people do to achieve something in a particular situation

Ø 成果,成就the result of an attempt

•the fundraising effort 筹款活动

•he was a keen gardener,winning many prizes for his efforts.他热衷于园艺,并因此获得了许多成果奖。

elect 选举;选择

Ø (人)选中的,卓越的(of a person)chosen or singled out

•one of the century's elect.本世纪卓越人物之一。

employ 雇用

Ø 应用;运用;使用to use sth such as a skill, method, etc. for a particular purpose

•the methods they have employed to collect the data.他们用来收集数据的方法。

engineer 工程师

Ø 精心安排(事件,情景);策划skifully or artfully arrange for(an event or situation)to occur

Ø 设计;制造(机器,建筑物)design and build(a machine or structure)

Ø 改变〔动植物等〕的基因结构to change the genetic structure of a plant, animal etc

Ø 策划者;设计者;发明者a skilful contriver or originator of something

•she engineered another meeting with him.她精心安排了与他的另一次会面。

•the men who engineered the tunnel.设计隧道的人们。

•genetically engineered crops 转基因农作物

•the prime engineer of the approach.这种方法的主要发明者。

enterprise 企业

Ø 创业精神;事业心;进取心the ability to think of new activities or ideas and make them work

•We’re looking for young people with enterprise and creativity. 我们在寻找有事业心和创造力的年轻人。

epidemic 传染病

Ø 蔓延;盛行;猖獗a sudden,widespread occurrence of a particular undesirable phenomenon

•an epidemic of violent crime.暴力犯罪的猖獗。

episode 插曲;一段情节

Ø 事件; 经历You can refer to an event or a short period of time as an episode if you want to suggest that it is important or unusual, or has some particular quality.

•This episode is bound to be a deep embarrassment for Washington. 这一事件必然使华盛顿大为尴尬。

erupt 爆发

Ø (愤怒、激情、喜悦等情感)迸发give vent to anger,enthusiasm,amusement,or other feelings in a sudden and noisy way

•the soldiers erupted in fits of laughter.士兵们发出阵阵笑声。

even 甚至

Ø 平的,平坦的flat and level, with no parts that are higher than other parts

Ø 〔比率、速度或温度〕平稳的,均匀的an even rate, speed, or temperature is steady and does not change

Ø 平分的,均分的divided equally, so that there is the same amount of something in each place, for each person etc

Ø 偶数的,双数的an even number can be divided exactly by two

•The floor must be completely even before we lay the tiles. 地面必须完全平整后才能铺地砖。

•The room is kept at an even temperature. 这个房间保持恒温状态。

•Divide the dough into three even amounts. 把生面团分成三等份。

•2, 4, 6 and 8 are even numbers. 2、4、6、8是偶数。

excite 激动

Ø 引起(某种感情或反应);激起bring out or give rise to(a feeling or reaction)

•the ability to excite interest in others.引起他人兴趣的能力。

exhibit 展览;;展示会

Ø 展示,显示〔品质、情感或能力〕to clearly show a particular quality, emotion, or ability

Ø 〔法庭上出示的〕证物an object that is shown in court to prove whether someone is guilty or not

•a patient who is exhibiting classic symptoms of mental illness 显现出精神病典型症状的患者

•Exhibit A is the hammer found next to the victim. 证物甲是在受害者身边发现的一把锤子。

expedition 远征;探险队

Ø <正式>迅速;敏捷promptness or speed in doing something

•the landlord shall remedy the defects with all possible expedition.房东必须尽快采取补救措施解决这些不足之处。

expire 呼气

Ø (文件,授权书,协议)期满;成为无效;失效(of a document,authorization,or agreement)cease to be valid,typically after a fixed period of time

•his driving licence expired.他的驾驶执照过期了。

fan 风扇;爱好者

Ø 激起;煽动(信念,情绪)cause(a belief or emotion)to become stronger or more widespread

•a fury fanned by press coverage.新闻报道激起的怒火。

fancy 幻想;想象力

Ø 喜欢,想要to like or want something, or want to do something

Ø 〔酒店、餐厅、汽车等〕昂贵的,豪华的ancy hotels, restaurants, cars etc are expensive and fashionable

Ø (结构或装饰)精心制作的;花式的elaborate in structure or decoration

Ø 复杂的;需要高度技巧的,高难度的complicated and needing a lot of skill

•Fancy a quick drink, Emma? 想喝点什么吗,埃玛?

•Harry took me to a fancy restaurant for our anniversary. 哈里带我去了一家豪华餐厅,庆祝我们的结婚纪念日。

•a fancy computerized system.一个精心制作的计算机化系统。

•I can’t do all that fancy stuff on the computer. 我不会在电脑上做那些复杂的东西。

fashion 时尚

Ø 塑造to influence and form someone’s ideas and opinions

Ø 〔用手或几件工具〕使成形,制作to shape or make something, using your hands or only a few tools

•We are all unique human beings, fashioned by life experiences. 我们都是由各自生活经历塑造而成的独特个体。

•He fashioned a box from a few old pieces of wood. 他用几块旧木板做了一个箱子。

feature 特色,特征

Ø (尤指报刊广播节目的长篇)特写,专题报道a newspaper or magazine article or a broadcast programme devoted to the treatment of a particular topic,typically at length

Ø 放映〔电影〕;上演〔戏剧〕to show a film, play etc

Ø 以…为特色,是…的特征;是…的重要组成to include or show something as a special or important part of something, or to be included as an important part

•a special feature on children's reference books.一篇关于儿童参考读物的专题报道。

•The Retro Theatre is featuring films by Frank Capra this week. 经典剧场本周上映弗兰克•卡普拉导演的影片。

•A study of language should feature in an English literature course. 语言学习应当成为英语文学课的重要组成部分。

fertile 肥沃的;富饶的

Ø (人、动物或植物)能生育的,可繁殖的(of a person,animal,or plant)able to conceive young or produce seed

Ø (人的头脑或想像力)丰富的,富于创新的。(of a person's mind or imagination)producing many new and inventive ideas with ease

Ø (情况,问题)富有新思想的;发人深思的(of a situation or subject)being fruitful and productive in generating new ideas

•Karen carefully calculated the period when she was most fertile.卡伦仔细地计算了自己的最佳受孕期。

•a product of Flynn's fertile imagination.弗林极富想像力的一个作品。

•a series of fertile debates within the social sciences.社会科学领域内一系列富有创见的辩论。

fetch 拿;取来

Ø 卖得,售得〔尤用于新闻报道〕to be sold for a particular amount of money, especially at a public sale – used especially in news reports

Ø 使作出〔某种反应〕;吸引来;引起to make people react in a particular way

•The painting is expected to fetch at least $20 million. 这幅画预计至少能卖两千万美元。

•This announcement fetched a huge cheer from the audience. 这一宣告博得听众极其热烈的欢呼声。

fever 发烧

Ø 狂热,异常激动,高度活跃if people’s feelings are at fever pitch, they are extremely excited

•The nation was at fever pitch in the days leading up to the election. 大选前几天,全国处于狂热的兴奋之中。

field 牧场

Ø 使参加竞赛[选举,战斗]if you field a team, an army etc, they represent you or fight for you in a competition, election, or war

Ø 〔研究或工作的〕领域,范围a subject that people study or an area of activity that they are involved in as part of their work

Ø 处理,应付〔问题、电话等〕to answer questions, telephone calls etc, especially when there are a lot of them or the questions are difficult

Ø 现场,实地work or study that is done in the field is done in the real world rather than in a class or laboratory

•The Ecology Party fielded 109 candidates . 生态党推举了109名候选人。

•Peter’s an expert in his field . 彼得是他那个行业里的专家。

•The Minister fielded questions on the Middle East. 那位部长回答了有关中东的问题。

•His theories have not yet been tested in the field. 他的理论尚未经过实地检验。

finance 财政

Ø 为…提供资金to provide money, especially a lot of money, to pay for something

•The concerts are financed by the Arts Council. 音乐会由艺术协会出资举办。

find 找到;发现

Ø 感到,觉得,认为to have a particular feeling or opinion, or to have a particular feeling or opinion about someone or something

•She found the work very dull. 她觉得这工作很无聊。

fog 

Ø <喻>搅乱形势(或思维)的事something that obscures and confuses a situation or someone's thought processes

Ø <喻>使迷惑,使不解bewilder or puzzle(someone)

•the origins of local government are lost in a fog of detail.地方自治的由来堕入细枝末节的云雾之中,难以考证。

•she stared at him,confusion fogging her brain.她凝视着他,脑子里一团雾水。

forge 熔炉;锻造

Ø 形成,缔造〔尤指与其他人、团体或国家形成牢固的关系〕to develop something new, especially a strong relationship with other people, groups, or countries

Ø 伪造,假冒〔尤指文书、笔迹等〕to illegally copy something, especially something

Ø 稳步前进;坚定地继续to move somewhere or continue doing something in a steady determined way

•The two women had forged a close bond. 这两个女人结下了亲密情谊。

printed or written, to make people think that it is real

•Someone stole my credit card and forged my signature. 有人偷了我的信用卡,并假冒我的签名。

•Crowds of people forged through the streets towards the embassy. 人群坚定地穿过街道走向大使馆。

forgive 原谅

Ø 免除(债务)cancel(a debt)

•he proposed that their debts should be forgiven.他提议免除他们的债务。

future 将来的,未来的

Ø 期货(futures) goods or shares that are bought at agreed prices but that will be delivered and paid for at a later time

•the futures market 期货市场

G

game 游戏;比赛

Ø 行当,行业an area of work or business

Ø 愿意尝试〔危险、新鲜或困难的事〕的willing to try something dangerous, new, or difficult

Ø 作为食物的)猎物肉,野味the flesh of these mammals or birds,used as food(

Ø 某人的比赛技巧,某人的运动技能how well someone plays a particular game or sport

•I’ve been in this game for over ten years. 我干这一行已经有十多年了。

•Okay. I’m game if you are. 好吧,你上我也上。

•a game pie.野味馅饼。

•the strongest aspect of his game 他比赛技巧中最强的一面

given 赠予的

Ø 指定的,特定的any particular time, situation, amount etc that is being used as an example

Ø 考虑到,鉴于taking something into account

Ø 已知(或既定)事实(或情况);必然的事物(情况)a known or established fact or situation

•The rules are to be followed in any given situation. 这些规则在任何情况下都要遵守。

•Given the circumstances, you’ve done really well. 鉴于这种情况,你已经算是处理得很好了。

•at a couture house,attentive service is a given.女式时装店肯定会提供殷勤服务的。

global 全球的

Ø 全面的,整体的considering all the parts of a problem or situation together

•We are taking a global view of our business. 我们从全局来考虑我们的生意。

ground 地面;土地

Ø (知识、讨论或思考的)范围,领域an area of knowledge or subject of discussion or thought

Ø 理由,根据(grounds)factors forming a basis for action or the justification for a belief

Ø (抽象事物)建立在牢固的理论(或实践)基础上(一般作be grounded in)give(something abstract)a firm theoretical or practical basis使

•he shifted the argument on to theoretical grounds of his own choosing.他将论点转移到自己选择的理论领域。

•there are some grounds for optimism 有一些乐观的理由

•the study of history must be grounded in a thorough knowledge of the past.历史研究必须建立在对过去全面了解的基础之上。

harbour 庇护;避难所

Ø 怀有,心存〔不好的想法、恐惧或希望〕to keep bad thoughts, fears, or hopes in your mind for a long time

Ø 包含;藏有to contain something, especially something hidden and dangerous

•I think he’s harbouring some sort of grudge against me. 我觉得他对我有点怀恨在心。

•Sinks and draining boards can harbour germs. 洗涤槽和沥水板可能藏有病菌。

hatch 孵化

Ø 策划(阴谋,计划)conspire to devise(a plot or plan)

•the little plot that you and Sylvia hatched up last night.你和西尔维亚昨天晚上想出来的小小阴谋。

heavy 沉重的

Ø <非正式>重要人物,要员 an important person

Ø 很多的,大量的;程度大的;严重的great in amount, degree, or severity

Ø 难懂的;难办的difficult to understand or deal with

Ø <非正式>(尤指充当保镖的)彪形大汉,壮汉a large,strong man,especially one hired for protection

Ø be heavy into sth沉溺于某事物to be very involved in an activity, especially one that is not good for you

•music business heavies.音乐界的重要人物。

•Heavy rain has caused flooding in many areas. 大雨在很多地区造成水灾。

•I found his latest novel a bit heavy going . 我认为他最新的小说有点难懂。

•Eric was real heavy into drugs for a while. 埃里克曾一度沉溺于毒品。

•I needed money to pay off the heavies.我需要一笔钱把保镖们打发走。

hit 打;打击

Ø 达到〔某一水平或数量〕to reach a particular level or number

Ø 有效,生效,起作用take effect

Ø 使突然清楚地意识到,使突然领悟be suddenly and vividly realized by

Ø (音乐,电影,戏剧)成功(of a piece of music,film,or play)be successful

Ø <非正式>喜欢,钟爱;认真对待used to express the idea that someone is taking up a pursuit or taking it seriously

Ø 〔突然〕被闻到;被看到if a smell or sight hits you, you suddenly smell or see it

•Sales have hit the 1 million mark . 销售额达到100万大关。

•we sat waiting for the caffeine to hit.我们坐着等待咖啡因起作用。

•it hit her that I wanted to settle down here.她突然意识到我想在这儿定居。

•actors are promised a pay increase if a show hits.演员得到承诺如果演出成功就加工资。

•more and more teenagers are hitting the books.越来越多的青少年喜爱书籍了。

•The smell of stale smoke hit him as he entered. 他进去的时候一股难闻的烟味扑鼻而来。

husband 丈夫

Ø 节约使用(资源)use(resources)economically

•the need to husband his remaining strength.保养他剩余体力的需要。

I

imagine 想象

Ø 料想;认为to think that sth is probably true

Ø 误以为;胡乱猜想;猜测to believe sth that is not true

•I don't imagine (that) they'll refuse. 我认为他们不会拒绝。

•He's always imagining (that) we're talking about him behind his back. 他总是胡乱猜想我们在背后说他的闲话。

immune 免疫的

Ø 受保护的;免除的(尤指无需尽义务或不受影响的)protected or exempt,especially from an obligation or the effects of something

•they are immune from legal action.他们免受诉讼。

index 索引

Ø 〔用于判断或量度水平的〕标志,指标a standard by which the level of something can be judged or measured

Ø 使〔工资、养老金等〕与物价水平挂钩to arrange for the level of wages, pensions etc to increase or decrease according to the level of prices

•The changing size of an infant’s head is considered an index of brain growth. 婴儿头围不断变大标志着大脑在发育。

•demands that wages be indexed to the rise in prices 要求工资与物价上涨挂钩

industry 产业;工业

Ø 勤劳,勤奋the fact of working hard

Ø 范围,领域,界〔指规模过大,含贬义〕an area of work which has grown too large

•Gould is a man of great industry. 古尔德是一个很勤劳的人。

•another book from the Shakespeare industry 庞杂的莎士比亚研究领域的又一部专著

innovation 创新,革新

Ø 新方法;新观念;新产品a new method,idea,product,etc.

•They produced the first vegetarian beanburger – an innovation which was rapidly exported. 他们制造出第一个素式豆堡包–一种被迅速销往国外的新食品。

intelligence 智力

Ø 情报,谍报information about the secret activities of foreign governments, the military plans of an enemy etc

Ø 情报人员;情报机构a group of people or an organization that gathers this information for their government

•According to our intelligence, further attacks were planned. 根据我们的情报,还会有更进一步的攻击。

•US Military Intelligence 美国军事情报处

interest 兴趣,爱好;利息

Ø 好处,利益,福利the advantage or benefit of a person or group

Ø (尤指金融方面的)股本,股份;关联a stake,share,or involvement in an undertaking,especially a financial one

•the merger is not contrary to the public interest 这一企业合并与公众利益并不相悖

•holders of voting rights must disclose their interests 有投票权的人必须公布自己的股份

invite 邀请,招待

Ø (指行为或情况)招致,引起;吸引,诱使,怂恿(of an action or situation)tend to elicit(a particular reaction or response)or to tempt(someone)to do something

•his use of the word did ittle but invite criticism.他使用该词没起到任何作用反倒招来批评。

issue 问题

Ø 发表〔声明〕;颁布,发出〔命令、警告等〕to officially make a statement, give an order, warning etc

Ø 提供,分配,分发supply or distribute(something)

Ø (出版物的)期,号each of a regular series of publications

•a warning issued by the Surgeon General (美国)卫生局局长发出的警告

•licences were issued indiscriminately to any company.一视同仁地把许可证发给各公司。

•the December issue of the magazine.杂志的12月号。

L

lag 落后(于),拖后

Ø 〔两个事件之间的〕时间间隔,相隔的时间a delay or period of waiting between one event and a second event

•a time lag 时间滞差

lame 跛足的

Ø 〔解释或借口〕无说服力的,站不住脚的a lame excuse or explanation is weak and difficult to believe

•a lame attempt to deflect criticism 转移批评的一个无力的尝试

last 最后的

Ø 最不可能的,最不适合的(the last)the least likely or suitable

Ø (过程,活动,状态)持续,继续(of a process,activity,or state of things)continue for a specified period of time

•addicts are often the last people to face up to their problems 瘾君子们常是最不能面对自身问题的人

•the guitar solo lasted for twenty minutes 吉他独奏持续了20分钟

leg 

Ø 〔旅程或赛程的〕一段,一程one part of a long journey or race

•the final leg of the Tour de France 环法自行车赛的最后一程

M

machine 机器

Ø 机器似的人,麻木呆板的人 〔指没有感情和思想〕someone who seems to behave like a machine and to have no feelings or thoughts

Ø <喻>机构,权力组织an efficient and wel-organized group of powerful people

Ø 〔控制某组织的〕核心人物,领导核心〔常含贬义〕a group of people who control and organize some-thing – often used to show disapproval

Ø 天生具有…能力的人[动物]a person or animal that does something very well or without having to think about it

•comedians are more than just laugh machines.喜剧演员远远不只是逗笑的机器。

•his campaign illustrated the continuing strength of a powerful political machine.

他的竞选活动展现了强大政治机器的持续威力。

•the bureaucrats of the party machine 政党核心组织的官僚

•In the tiger, nature has produced the perfect hunting machine. 大自然让老虎成为天生的捕猎高手。

manage 管理

Ø 设法做成,努力完成〔困难的事〕to succeed in doing something difficult, especially after trying very hard

Ø 处理,应付;承受succeed in dealing with or withstanding(something)

•Juventus managed two goals in the last ten minutes. 在最后十分钟里,尤文图斯队攻进了两个球。

•there was more stress and anxiety than he could manage.压力之大,焦虑之深,非他所能承受。

map 地图

Ø 绘制〔某地区〕的地图to make a map of a particular area

Ø 发现,表示出〔某物的形状、排列形式、其移动或工作的方式〕to discover or show information about something, especially about its shape or arrangement, or how it moves or works

Ø 〔显示岩石、天气、人口类型等具体特征的〕图a drawing of an area showing some kind of special feature, for example the type of rocks, weather, population etc

Ø 与...有关,与...有联系with adverbial]be associated or linked to something

•He spent the next fifteen years mapping the Isle of Anglesey. 他在后来的十五年里绘制了安格尔西岛的地图。

•The points at which stress and anxiety emerge can be mapped. 可以找出紧张和焦虑出现的规律。

•an archaeological map of the area 该地区的考古地图

•it is not obvious that the subprocesses of language will map on to individual brain areas.要说语言的次过程和大脑的各个不同区域相联系,这还不明显。

margin 边缘

Ø 利润,赚头the difference between what it costs a business to buy or produce something and what they sell it for

Ø 误差值,误差幅度the degree to which a calculation might or can be wrong

Ø (为确保做成某事或安全而留出的)余地an amount of something included so as to be sure of success or safety

Ø (账户,交易)预付定金;交押金deposit an amount of money with a broker as security for(an account or transaction)or space that you include in order to make sure that you are successful in achieving something

•Margins are low and many companies are struggling. 利润很少,很多公司都在苦苦挣扎。

•The survey has a margin of error of 2.1%. 这次调查的误差值为2.1%。

•there was no margin for error.没有容许出现差错的任何余地。

•[as adj.margined]a margined transaction.预付定金的交易。

N

name 名字

Ø 名声;名誉the opinion that people have about a person or organization

Ø 非常著名的人[公司,产品]a person, company or product that is very famous or is known by many people

Ø 提及;引述mention or cite by name

Ø 委任;委派appoint(someone)to a particular position or task

Ø 说定;决定(数额、时间或地点)specify(a sum,time,or place)as something desired,suggested,or decided on

•He didn’t want to do anything to damage the good name of the company. 他不想做任何有损公司良好声誉的事。

•some of the biggest names in show business 演艺界的一些大牌明星

•the sea is as crystal clear as any spot in the Caribbean you might care to name.这片海与你可能想提及的加勒比海的任何一处水域同样晶莹清澈。

•he was named to head a joint UN-OAS diplomatic effort.他被委任领导联合国美洲国家联合组织的外交调停工作。

•the club have asked Ballymena to name their price for the Scottish striker.俱乐部已要求巴利米纳队把那位苏格兰前锋的价格敲定下来。

narrow 狭窄的

Ø (使)〔范围、差距等〕缩小•if a range, difference etc narrows, or if something narrows it, it becomes less

Ø (在程度、数量或范围等方面)有局限limited in extent,amount,or scope;restricted

Ø (尤指胜利、失利或逃脱)勉强的;差点儿未成功的,很险的。(especially of a victory,defeat,or escape)with only a small margin;barely achieved

Ø 含义精确(或严格)的precise or strict in meaning

•The choice of goods available is narrowing. 可供选择的商品越来越少。

•his ability to get good results within narrow constraints of money and manpower.

他那种能在有限资金和人力制约下取得好业绩的本事。

•He was shaken by his narrow escape from death. 他死里逃生,吓得不轻。

•some of the narrower definitions of democracy.一些对民主更精确的定义。

nature 大自然,自然界

Ø 本质,实质;特性the basic or inherent features of something,especially when seen as characteristic of it

Ø (人或动物的)秉性,天性the innate or essential qualities or character of a person or animal

•helping them to realize the nature of their problems 帮助他们认识他们问题的本质

•it's not in her nature to listen to advice 听取建议不是她的天性

novel 小说

Ø 新的;新颖的;新奇not like anything known before, and unusual or interesting

•What a novel idea! 多么新奇的想法呀!

O

obscure 朦胧的

Ø 搞混,使难理解to make something difficult to know or understand

Ø 遮蔽;使朦胧;使听不清to prevent something from being seen or heard clearly

•Recent successes have obscured the fact that the company is still in trouble. 近来的成功掩盖了公司依然处于困境的事实。

•The view was obscured by mist. 薄雾中景色朦胧。

operate 操作;动手术

Ø 〔企业或机构在某处或以某种方式〕经营,营业,活动if a business or organization operates in a particular place or way, it works in that place or way

Ø 起…作用,作…用to have a particular purpose

Ø 〔士兵或警察在某地区〕行动,执行公务if soldiers or police officers are operating in an area, they are working in that area

•They were trying to reduce operating costs. 他们在设法降低经营成本。

•The foam operates as a very effective filter. 这些泡沫材料能起到很有效的过滤作用。

•Security patrols now operate in some of the most dangerous parts of the city. 目前,治安巡逻队正在该城市最危险的一些地区执行任务。

opinion 意见;主张

Ø 舆论the beliefs or views of a large number or majority of people about a particular thing

Ø (正式的)专家意见;鉴定a formal statement of advice by an expert on a professional matter

•the changing climate of opinion.正在变化的舆论氛围。

•When choosing an insurance policy it’s best to get an independent opinion. 选择保险时,最好听听专家的独立意见。

outstanding 杰出的;显著的

Ø 尚未完成的;有待解决的;未付的not yet done, solved, or paid

•We’ve got quite a few debts still outstanding. 我们有许多债务尚未偿还。

P

pace 步速;步伐

Ø (发生、进展、发展的)速度;速率the speed or rate at which something happens,changes,or develops

Ø 测试某人/某物的本领[性能];使某人/某物展示本领[性能]to make a person, vehicle, animal etc show how well they can do something

•the industrial boom gathered pace 工业繁荣加速了

•The test driver puts all the cars through their paces. 试车手测试了所有的车辆。

paper 

Ø 试卷;答卷a set of printed questions used as an examination in a particular subject, and the answers people write

Ø (研究)论文;(学术)讲话a piece of writing or a talk on a particular subject by someone who has made a study of it

Ø 〔工作、会议等上用的〕文件pieces of paper with writing on them that you use in your work, at meetings etc

Ø 证明;证件〔如护照、身份证等〕official documents such as your passport , identity card etc

Ø 隐瞒[掩盖]分歧[困难]to try to hide disagreements or difficulties

•an exam paper 考卷

•a scientific paper 科学论文

•I left some important papers in my briefcase. 我把一些重要文件落在公文包里了。

•My papers are all in order (= they are legal and correct ) . 我的证件全都是合法有效的。

•We need to discuss disagreements honestly without papering over the cracks. 我们应该开诚布公地讨论分歧而不是遮遮掩掩。

penetrate 渗透;穿透

Ø 洞察,了解(复杂或神秘事情)succeed in understanding or gaining insight into(something complex or mysterious)

Ø 被某人完全理解(或意识到)be fully understood or realized by someone

•a magician who seemed to have penetrated the mysteries of nature.-位好像已经洞察自然界秘密的魔术师。

•as his words penetrated,she saw a mental picture of him with Dawn.随着对他的话的理解,她脑海里出现了他和道恩在一起的画面。

performance 表演

Ø 〔汽车或机器的〕性能how well a car or other machine works

Ø 麻烦,费事a process that takes a lot of unnecessary time and effort

Ø 履行,执行;完成the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action,task,or function

•The car’s performance on mountain roads was impressive. 这辆汽车在山路上的性能令人惊叹。

•Shopping at the markets turned out to be quite a performance. 在那些市场购物原来这么麻烦。

•the continual performance of a single task reduces a man to the level of a machine.连续做一种工作能把人变成机器。

picture 照片,图画

Ø 〔某地方、组织等的〕情况,局面the general situation in a place, organization etc

Ø 〔脑中的〕形象;印象an image or memory that you have in your mind

Ø 描绘,描述to describe something in a particular way

Ø 想象;设想;忆起to imagine sb/sth; to create an image of sb/sth in your mind

•The worldwide picture for tribal people remains grim. 全球各地部落民众的情况仍不容乐观。

•He had a vivid picture in his mind. 他脑中有清晰的印象。

•She’s been pictured as a difficult, demanding woman. 她被描绘成一个难以相处的苛刻女人。

•I can still picture the house I grew up in. 我还能回忆起我童年时住的那座房子。

pioneer 先锋

Ø 开发,开拓;开辟,开创,创办develop or be the first to use or apply(a new method,area of knowledge,or activity)

•he pioneered the use of television in lessons.他开创了在教学中使用电视的做法。

press 压;按

Ø 记者;新闻工作者;新闻界the journalists and photographers who work for newspapers and magazines

Ø 人群;拥挤a closely packed crowd or mass of people or things

Ø 竭力要求;坚持;强调forcefully put forward(an opinion,claim,or course of action)

Ø 出版社;印刷厂a business that prints or publishes books

Ø 受到媒体批评/好评If someone or something gets bad press, they are criticized, especially in the newspapers, on television, or on radio. If they get good press, they are praised.

•among the press of cars he saw a taxi.在拥挤的车群中他看到一辆出租车。

•The Press was/were not allowed to attend the trial. 庭审谢绝新闻采访。

•Rose did not press the point.罗斯没有坚持这点。

•the Clarendon Press.牛津大学出版社。

•...the bad press that career women consistently get in this country. …在这个国家职业女性一贯受到的媒体批评一家先前不知名。

prize 奖品;奖赏

Ø 珍视,高度重视to think that someone or something is very important or valuable

Ø 完全的;彻底的complete;utter

Ø 优秀的;典范性的;出类拔萃的being a very good example of its kind

•He is someone who prizes truth and decency above all things. 他把真理和正派看得高于一切。

•you must think I'm a prize idiot.你一定以为我是个大傻瓜。

•a prize student 模范学生

problem 难题;困难

Ø 疾病something wrong with your health or with part of your body

•Does she have any long-term health problems? 她有什么慢性病吗?

put 

Ø (以某一方式、形式、语言)表达(思想,评论)express(a thought or comment)in a particular way,form,or language

Ø 使处于某一状态(或境地)bring into a particular state or condition

Ø 使工作;使做…;利用to make someone or something work or do something, or to use it

Ø 指定.….的价值(或数字、限度)assign a particular value,figure,or limit to

Ø 〔在…上〕书写;做〔标记〕to write or print something or to make a mark with a pen or pencil

•to put it bluntly,he was not really divorced.坦率地说,他没有正式离婚。

•they tried to put me at ease 他们尽量使我放松情绪

•a scheme to put unemployed people to work on government construction projects 让失业人员参与政府施工项目的计划

•it is very difficult to put a figure on the size of the budget.很难指出预算大小的具体数字。

•Put your name at the top of each answer sheet. 在每张答卷的顶端写上你的名字。

Q

quarter 四分之一;季度;

Ø 区,地区an area of a town

Ø 〔尤指用人或军人的〕宿舍,住房;营房the rooms that are given to someone to live in as part of their job, especially servants or soldiers

•I found a small flat in the student quarter. 我在学生居住区找到一间小公寓。

•The top floor provided living quarters for the kitchen staff. 顶层是厨房员工的住处。

question 问题;疑问

Ø 怀疑;对…提出质疑[异议]to have or express doubts about whether something is true, good, necessary etc

•No one dared to question his decisions. 没人敢质疑他的决定。

R

read 阅读

Ø (段落,文本,标志)载有,写着(of a passage,text,or sign)contain or consist of specified words;have a certain wording

Ø (度量仪器]显示,指示if a measuring instrument reads a particular number,it shows that number

Ø 看出,觉察出,洞悉(事实,感情,品质)discern(a fact,emotion,or quality)in someone's eyes or expression

Ø 懂得;理解to understand sth in a particular way

Ø (人)书读得多的,有学问的,知识渊博的(of a person)knowledgeable and informed as a result of extensive reading

•the placard read"We want justice'.标语牌上写着“我们要公平”。

•The thermometer read 46 degrees.温度计显示46度。

•she looked down,terrified that he would read fear on her face.她低下头,害怕他觉察到自己脸上的恐惧表情。

•How do you read the present situation? 你对目前的形势有何看法?

•Ada was well read in French and German literature.艾达对法国和德国文学涉猎甚广。

remote 遥远的;偏僻的

Ø 相差很大的;极不相同的very different from sth

Ø 〔机会或可能性〕渺茫的,微乎其微的if a chance or possibility of something happening is remote, it is not very likely to happen

Ø 遥远的,久远的,远古的far away in time

•His theories are somewhat remote from reality. 他的理论有点儿脱离现实。

•The prospect of peace seems remote. 实现和平的希望似乎很渺茫。

•the remote time when dinosaurs walked the earth 恐龙霸行天下的远古时代

respect 尊敬;遵守

Ø (事物的)方面,细节a particular aspect or detail of sth

•In this respect we are very fortunate. 在这方面,我们是很幸运的。

rule 规则

Ø 判定,裁定〔尤指法律问题〕to make an official decision about something, especially a legal problem

Ø 统治,治理to have the official power to control a country and the people who live there

Ø 〔情感或欲望〕控制,支配if a feeling or desire rules someone, it has a powerful and controlling influence on their actions

•The judge ruled that she should have custody of the children. 法官判定孩子的监护权归她。

•Queen Victoria ruled England for 64 years. 维多利亚女王统治英格兰64年。

•the passion for power and success which rules her life 支配着她生活的对权力和成功的强烈渴望

S

sandwich 三明治

Ø 被夹在…中间to be in a very small space between two other things

•A layer of transparent material is sandwiched between the pieces of glass. 一层透明材料夹在玻璃中间。

satisfaction 满意,满足

Ø 赔偿,补偿what is felt to be owed or due to one,especially in reparation of an injustice or wrong

•the work will come to a halt if the electricity and telephone people don't get satisfaction.如果电力和电话公司的员工得不到补偿的话,工作将会陷于停顿。

school 学校

Ø (大学的)系;科;院a department or faculty of a university concerned with a particular subject of study

Ø 学派,流派a number of people who are considered as a group because of their similar style of work

Ø 训练;教育to train or teach someone to have a certain skill, type of behaviour, or way of thinking

Ø <喻>成长环境used to describe the type of circumstances in which someone was brought up

Ø 群a large number of fish or other sea animals, swimming together

•the School of Dental Medicine.牙科医学系。

•the Impressionist school 印象派

•She was schooled in hiding her emotions. 她被教育要隐藏自己的情绪。

•I was brought up in a hard school and I don't forget it.我成长于艰苦环境,我不会忘记。

•a school of dolphins 一群海豚

science 科学;技术

Ø 学科a systematically organized body of knowledge on a particular subject

•the science of criminology.犯罪学,刑事学。

screen 屏,幕;屏风

Ø 隐藏,遮蔽,隐蔽if something screens something else, it is in front of it and hides it

Ø 筛查,检查to do tests on a lot of people to find out whether they have a particular illness

Ø 放映〔影片〕;播放〔电视节目〕to show a film or television programme

Ø 分析;评估evaluate or analyse(something)for its suitability for a particular purpose or application

Ø 影视;电影业(the screen)flms or television;the film industry

•A line of trees screened the house from the road. 一排树木把这幢房子遮蔽起来,从马路上

•All women over 50 will be regularly screened. 所有50岁以上女性都将定期接受检查。

•The film is being screened around the country. 这部电影正在全国放映。

•only one per cent of rainforest plants have been screened for medical use.只有百分之一的雨林植物进行了医疗用途分析评估。

•she's a star of the track as well as the screen.她既是电影明星,又是径赛明星。

share 分享

Ø 共享;共用,合用to have or use something with other people

Ø 股,股份one of the equal parts into which the ownership of a company is divided

Ø 分担〔责任〕;分摊〔费用〕to have equal responsibility for doing something, paying for something etc

Ø 共同拥有〔某种看法、特质或经历〕to have the same opinion, quality, or experience as someone else

•We don't have enough books so you'll have to share.我们书不够,所以你们得合着用。

•We’ve got shares in Allied Chemicals. 我们有联合化工的股份。

•We share the responsibility for the children. 我们共同承担照顾孩子的责任。

•I believe my view is widely shared . 我相信我的观点为许多人所认同。

significant 重大的;有意义的;意味深长的

Ø 相当数量的;影响明显的large enough to be noticeable or have noticeable effects

•A significant number of drivers fail to keep to speed limits. 有相当多的司机不遵守车速限制。

simply 简单地

Ø 实在,根本,简直〔用于强调所说的话〕used to emphasize what you are saying

Ø 仅仅,只是only

•This work is simply not good enough. 这工作做得实在不够好。

•It’s not simply a question of money. 这不仅仅是钱的问题。

spring 春天

Ø 泉,泉源a place where water comes up naturally from the ground

Ø 弹性,弹力the ability to spring back strongly;elasticity

Ø 跳,跳跃,跳起to move suddenly and quickly in a particular direction, especially by jumping

Ø 涌现,涌出;惊现(spring up)suddenly develop or appear

Ø 突然向某人提供(或提出)(spring something on)present or propose something suddenly 发源于;来自(spring from)originate or arise from

Ø or unexpectedly to(someone)

Ø 突然启动;突然运转operate suddenly by means of a mechanism

•spring water 泉水

•the mattress has lost its spring.这床垫已经没有弹性了。

•He sprang to his feet (= stood up suddenly ) and rushed after her. 他腾地站起身,冲过去追她。

•a terrible storm sprang up.突然来了一场可怕的暴风雨。

•we decided to spring a surprise on them.我们决定要让他们大吃一惊。

•madness and creativity could spring from the same source.疯狂和创造力可能来源相同。

•the engine sprang into life.机器突然运转起来。

still 仍然

Ø [与比较级连用表示强调]甚至,还要even(used with comparatives for emphasis)

Ø 静止的;平静的;安静的;寂静的not moving; calm and quiet

Ø 不含碳酸气的;不起泡的not containing bubbles of gas; not fizzy

Ø (电影或录像的)定格画面;剧照a photograph of a scene from a film/movie or video

•write,or better still,type,captions for the pictures为那些相片书写,或者更好的是,打印说明文字

•still water 平静的水面

•still mineral water 无汽矿泉水

•a publicity still from his new movie 他的新电影的广告剧照

storm 暴风雨

Ø 猛烈攻击,突然袭击〔某地〕to suddenly attack and enter a place using a lot of force

Ø 强烈的反应;骚动;论战a tumultuous reaction;an uproar or controversy

Ø (感情或反应的)爆发,迸发a violent or noisy outburst of a specified feeling or reaction

•An angry crowd stormed the embassy. 愤怒的人群突然袭击大使馆。

•the book caused a storm in America 那本书在美国掀起了轩然大波

•the disclosure raised a storm of protest.这一披露激起了抗议风暴。

story 故事;小说

Ø 楼层a floor or level of a building

Ø (对人的一生或事物发展所经历事情的)叙述,描述an account of past events in someone's life or in the evolution of something

Ø (报纸、杂志、新闻广播的)新闻报道,记事a report of an item of news in a newspaper,magazine,or news broadcast

Ø <非正式>假话;错误的解释;谎话a false statement or explanation;a lie

Ø 内情,实情,详情a situation viewed in terms of the information known about it or its similarity to another

Ø (公司的)商业前景,商业现状the commercial prospects or circumstances of a particular company

•a 50-story building 一幢50层的大楼

•the story of modern farming 现代农业发展史话

•stories in the local papers.地方报纸的新闻报道。

•Ellie never told stories-she had always believed in the truth.埃莉从没说过谎,她一直相信事实。

•having such information is useful,but it is not the whole story 有那样的信息是有用的,但它并不能解决一切问题

•profitable businesses with solid stories.发展前景良好的有利可图的企业。

sweep 扫除;打扫

Ø 迅速蔓延(或席卷)affect(an area or place)swiftly and widely

Ø 〔大面积的〕搜索,搜查;扫荡a search or attack that moves over a large area

Ø 步态轻盈地走;大模大样地走to move quickly and/or smoothly, especially in a way that impresses or is intended to impress other people

•violence swept the country 暴力席卷了全国

•He watched the helicopter make a sweep over the beach. 他看着直升机在海滩上空搜索。

•Without another word she swept out of the room. 她再没说话,大模大样地走出房间。

T

tell 告诉,说

Ø 显示;提示;说明to give information in ways other than talking

Ø 识别,辨别,分辨to be able to see how one person or thing is different from another

Ø 泄密;泄露divulge confidential or private information

Ø 产生(不良)效果,发生(负面)影响(of an experience or period of time)have a noticeable,typically harmful,effect on someone

•The light tells you when the machine is ready. 机器就绪后提示灯会亮。

•Can you tell the difference between sparkling wine and champagne? 你能区分气泡酒和香槟的差别吗?

•promise you won't tell.你保证不泄密。

•the strain of supporting the family was beginning to tell on him.养家糊口的重负开始让他吃不消了。

theatre 电影院,戏院

Ø (事件发生的)场所the area in which something happens

•a new theatre of war has been opened up.新的战区已经开辟。

thumb 拇指

Ø 用拇指翻动;翻阅turn over(pages)with or as if with one's thumb

Ø 竖起拇指向过路汽车要求(免费搭乘)request or obtain(a free ride in a passing vehicle)by signalling with one's thumb

•I've thumbed my address book and found quite a range of smaller hotels 我翻看我的通讯录,发现里面记了一长串的小旅馆

•three cars passed me and I tried to thumb a lift 三辆车经过我身边,我伸出拇指想

tie 领带

Ø 束缚,约束;限制,局限(常作be tied)restrict or limit(someone)to a particular situation,occupation,or place

Ø 〔人、团体或国家之间的〕关系,联系a strong relationship between people, groups, or countries

Ø 〔比赛、竞赛或选举中〕分数相同,票数相同,平局,平手the result of a game, competition, or election when two or more people or teams get the same number of points, votes etc

•she didn't want to be like her mother,tied to a feckless man.她可不想像她母亲,受制于一个不负责任的男人。

•the importance of strong family ties 家庭关系密切的重要性

•The match ended in a tie. 这场比赛以平局告终。

traffic 交通

Ø 〔秘密进行的〕非法买卖,非法交易the secret buying and selling of illegal goods

Ø 信息流量;通信(量)the movement of messages and signals through an electronic communication system

•drugs traffic 毒品买卖

•the computer servers that manage global Internet traffic 管理全球互联网通信的计算机服务器

train 火车;训练

Ø a train of sth一系列,一连串〔相关事件或行动〕a series of events or actions that are related

•The decision set off a train of events which led to his resignation. 这一决定引发了一连串事件,最终导致了他的辞职。

U

umbrella 雨伞

Ø 〔包括多种含义的〕概括词/总称等a word whose meaning includes many different types of a particular thing

Ø 保护伞the protection given by a powerful country, army, a weapons system etc

Ø 多成分组成物;综合机构a thing that includes or contains many different elements or parts

•District nurses, health visitors, and school nurses will come under the umbrella term ‘community nursing’. 地区护士、健康访视员和学校护士都归在“社区护理”这个总称下面。

•the American nuclear umbrella over western Europe 美国向西欧提供的核保护伞

•an umbrella organization.综合性机构。

understand 理解;懂

Ø 获悉;据信;听说to believe or think that something is true because you have heard it or read it

Ø …不言而喻;达成共识if something is understood, everyone knows it, or has agreed to it, and there is no need to discuss it

•‘I understand that he was 62 when he died,’ McLeish said. “据我所知他是 62 岁时去世的。”麦克利什说。

•From childhood it was understood that your parents would choose your husband. 从小你就知道父母会为你挑选丈夫。

undo 取消;撤消

Ø 消除.….影响或结果;使恢复原状cancel or reverse the effects or results of(a previous action or measure)

•there wasn't any way Evelyn could undo the damage.伊芙琳根本无法消除那损害所造成的影响。

uniform 制服

Ø 全部相同的,一致的being the same in all its parts or among all its members

•Grade A eggs must be of uniform size. A 级鸡蛋必须大小相同。

V

value 价值

Ø 尊重,重视consider(someone or something)to be important or beneficial;have a high opinion of

Ø 价值观念,标准(values)a person's principles or standards of behaviour;one's judgement of what is important in life

Ø 给…估价,给…估值to decide how much money something is worth, by comparing it with similar things

•she had come to value her privacy and independence 她开始重视自己的隐私和独立性

•they internalize their parents'rules and values.他们继承了父母的准则和价值观。

•We decided to get the house valued. 我们决定给房子估一估价。

ventilate 使通风;给…装通风设备

Ø 公开讨论(或调查)(意见、问题、抱怨等)discuss or examine(an opinion,issue,complaint,etc.)in public

•he used the club to ventilate an ongoing complaint.他利用俱乐部讨论眼下的一种怨言。

venture 冒险

Ø (尤指有风险的)企业,商业,投机活动,经营项目a business project or activity, especially one that involves taking risks

•A disastrous business venture lost him thousands of dollars. 一个彻底失败的经营项目使他损失严重。

very 非常,很

Ø 同一的,正是的,恰好的〔用以加强语气〕used to emphasize that you are talking exactly about one particular thing or person

Ø (强调形容词最高级或置于own前)完全,十足used to emphasize a superlative adjective or before own

•He died in this very room. 他就是在这个房间里去世的。

•They wanted the very best quality. 他们要最好的质量。

W

wage 工资,工钱

Ø 发动,进行〔战争或斗争〕to be involved in a war against someone, or a fight against something

•The police are waging war on drug pushers in the city. 警方正在市内开展一场打击毒贩的斗争。

wake 醒来;唤醒

Ø <喻>引起,激起,唤起cause(something)to stir or come to life

Ø <喻>后果,结果used to refer to the aftermath or consequences of something

•it wakes desire in others.这引起了他人的欲望。

•the committee was set up in the wake of the inquiry.委员会是在经过调查之后成立的。

want 要;想要

Ø 缺乏,缺少〔某物,因而受苦〕to suffer because you do not have something

Ø (警方)缉拿;追捕(嫌疑犯)(一般作be wanted)(of the police)desire to question or apprehend(a suspected criminal)

•In many poorer countries, people still want basic food and shelter. 在许多贫困国家,人们仍然缺少必需的食物和住处。

•he is wanted by the police in connection with an arms theft.他因与一起武器盗窃案有牵连而被警方通辑。

way 方法;道路

Ø (个人的)风格,习惯,作风a person's characteristic or habitual manner of behaviour or expression

Ø (群体的)习俗;习惯(ways)the customary modes of behaviour or practices of a group

Ø 很远;大量very far; by a large amount

•it was not his way to wait passively for things to happen.被动等待事情发生不是他的风格。

•my years of acclimatization to British ways.我适应英国风俗习惯的岁月。

•She finished the race way ahead of the other runners. 她遥遥领先于其他选手跑到终点。

wear 穿;戴;佩戴

Ø 面露,面带;呈现,表现exhibit or present(a particular facial expression or appearance )

•they a frozen smile on their faces.他们面带冰冷的微笑。

weather 天气;气候

Ø (因受风吹、日晒、雨淋等,使)退色,变色,变形to change, or make sth change, colour or shape because of the effect of the sun, rain or wind

Ø 经受住(困难,危险)withstand(a difficulty or danger)

•his skin was weathered almost black by his long outdoor life长期在户外生活,使得他的皮肤几乎变成黑色

•this year has tested industry's ability to weather recession.今年对工业经受衰退的能力是个考验。

weigh 称…重量

Ø 认真考虑,权衡〔某事〕to consider something carefully so that you can make a decision about it

Ø 〔对观点或决定〕有影响to influence someone’s opinion and the decision that they make

•It is my job to weigh the evidence. 认真研究证据是我的职责。

•This unfortunate experience will weigh heavily against further investment in the area. 这次遗憾的经历将大大影响对这个地区的进一步投资。

wind 

Ø (不可阻挡的)影响;趋势,潮流,动向used in reference to an influence or tendency that cannot be resisted

Ø 〔正常的〕呼吸能力your ability to breathe normally

Ø 〔绕着他物〕缠绕,卷绕to turn or twist something several times around something else

Ø 〔道路、河流等〕蜿蜒,曲折前进if a road, river etc winds some-where, it has many smooth bends and is usually very long

Ø 〔为使机器运转或启动而〕摇动[转动]〔把手等〕;给〔机械〕上发条to turn part of a machine around several times, in order to make it move or start working

•a wind of change.变化之风。

•get your wind (back) (=be able to breathe normally again, for example after running)〔跑步等后〕恢复正常呼吸,喘过气来

•The hair is divided into sections and wound around heated rods. 头发被分成一绺绺缠绕在加热棒上。

•a winding path 蜿蜒的小路

•Did you remember to wind the clock? 你有没有记得给钟上发条?

wisdom 智慧

Ø (the) conventional/received/traditional etc wisdom普遍的看法/公认的见解/传统的信念等a belief or opinion that most people have

•The conventional wisdom is that boys mature more slowly than girls. 人们普遍认为男孩比女孩晚熟。熟词僻义是很多考研同学较为头痛的问题,市面有各式各样的单词书,鲜有关于熟词僻义的资料,网上的也是很零碎的总结。鉴于当时自己准备考研英语的苦恼,就决定把自己总结的和网上尽可能能找到的考研熟词僻义全部整理出来,并附带英文解释,同时也是提升自己的一个好方法。收集完所有考研的熟词僻义后,再一一查阅牛津、新牛津、朗文、柯林斯四本英语字典的英文释义,想想哪一个释义是大家都容易忽略的,最后从四本字典中选出一个最具代表性、最易懂、陌生单词最少的英文解释。由于每个人的基础不一样,所以本资料不能保证所有的生僻释义是你不知道的,因此从全稿230页左右中摘选出一部分作为《考研英语熟词僻义大当家——试读版》的电子档供大家了解,由各自衡量本资料的含金量,而不是自己胡乱吹嘘,考研时间本就紧迫,还忽悠别人看没用的资料,那是不道德的。

所有的阅读技巧都是建立在认识单词的基础上,再找套路提高自己的分数。阅读文章时不要把单词割裂出来,而是根据整个句子、整个段落或整篇文章的语境来分析单词的。碰到自己不认识的单词(熟词僻义),一般是先按自己记忆的常见基本释义去理解整句话,若语义不通顺,再凭自己的语感、综合知识储备或好的语文功底用适当的意思填进去理解。但这样做容易出现三个问题:第一,并不是所有人的语感都好,或综合知识面足够广,又或语文功底扎实,阅读长难句时就会显得有些困难;第二,用你以为的“适当的”意思填进去,可能扭曲整个句子的感情色彩和意思,阅读题会影响理解,导致选出错误答案,而翻译题,翻译的准确性直接影响你的分数;第三,考试时间才三个小时,在考场怎么可能让我们去花大把的时间去琢磨某个单词的生僻意思,有些单词还能靠平时记忆的基本释义猜出来,有些单词,没有接触过,怕是很难联想出来。除此之外,我想说的是,熟词僻义并不是真的生僻,一是因为平时记忆的时候很多人只记住了最好记的、最常用的释义,而其它的释义往往就被忽视掉了,比如:

二是因为有些单词书、单词软件只挑选了某个单词的部分释义。这两点说明学英语除了坚持记单词很重要,记全单词释义也是很重要的,

记完单词再去做真题,你会发现,有些单词我们心里知道是什么意思,但是读一个完整的句子就不知道如何翻译,如何用恰当的中文表达出来。很多时候都是熟词僻义的导致的,对于熟词僻义,很多过来人都建议同学边刷真题边记单词并尝试看单词英文释义,或者是记完一轮考纲单词再去刷真题,刷真题时碰到陌生单词再去查字典,那么,问题又来了,查单词是用纸质词典还是电子词典?用纸质书嫌麻烦,手机下个词典,估计“查词五分钟,刷微博、朋友圈两小时”。虽说看单词英文释义的确是一个不错的方法,但对于时间紧迫的应试考试,且不排除你的自制力好的情况下,花大把的时间查单词,似乎有点得不偿失。所以我就决定自己总结一本涵盖考研所有的熟词僻义,且带有英文释义,这样就能减少你英语的复习时间。于是怀着“大当家”的心态整理出《考研英语熟词僻义大当家》,尽可能全面又不鸡肋,让大家使用该资料能对考研英语的熟词僻义一网打尽。

对于考研熟词僻义个人有四点建议

1) 坚持记单词

2) 单词释义要记全

3) 下定决心看英文释义

4) 精读大量文章(即刷真题)

本资料有何效用?

l 可作为英语词汇辅助书,重点关注考研单词盲区,攻克考研熟词僻义。

l 减少猜单词的次数,提高阅读速度。

l 增加翻译准确性。

l 优化写作句子。

强烈推荐看英文释义,就和我们小时候学习中文一样,查新华字典看中文解释,看其基本意思,看其搭配。查英语单词也一样,看单词的搭配、用法、感情色彩等等。对单词了解的越深,阅读文章的速度也就越快,翻译也就越准确,写作使用的词汇也更高级。

资料最后附有“艾宾浩斯遗忘曲线的复习表格”,本资料虽然页数有230页,但单词都是常见的,按照表格记忆——>复习——>记忆——>复习,能高效持久的记忆完1000多个单词,后面的复习表格行数也是绰绰有余。

由于本人水平有限,内容较多,时间仓促,书中不妥之处在所难免,诚望广大读者不吝赐教,提出宝贵意见。

A

about 关于;大约

Ø 向相反方向,转身,掉头so as to face in the opposite direction

Ø [表达在特定场所的位置]在里面各处,四下used to express location in a particular place

•He quickly turned about and walked away. 他一个转身就走了。

•a thief about in the hotel.在旅馆里四下行窃的小偷。

absence 缺席

Ø 缺乏;没有the lack of something or the fact that it does not exist

•In the absence of any evidence, the police had to let Myers go. 警察没有证据,只好把迈尔斯放了。

accent 口音

Ø 显出,突出;强调to make something more noticeable so that people will pay attention to it

Ø 重音the part of a word that you should emphasize when you say it

•Use make-up to accent your cheekbones and eyes. 用化妆来突出颧骨和眼部。

•In the word ‘dinner’ the accent is on the first syllable. dinner一词的重音在第一音节上。

account 账户

Ø 叙述,描写,报道a written or spoken deion that says what happens in an event or process

Ø on account of sth因为某事,由于某事because of something else, especially a problem or difficulty

Ø 重要性importance

Ø 解释,说明to give a satisfactory explanation of why something has happened or why you did something

Ø 认为,看作consider or regard in a specified way

•He was too shocked to give an account of what had happened. 他因受惊过度而无法描述所发生的事情。

•She was told to wear flat shoes, on account of her back problem. 因为背部有问题,她被建议穿平底鞋。

•money was of no account to her.金钱对她无关紧要。

•Can you account for your movements on that night? 你能说明一下你那天晚上的行踪吗?

•he accounted himself the unluckiest man alive.他认为自己是世上最倒霉的人。

act 行为,行动

Ø 【律】(议会、国会等的书面)法令,条例a written ordinance of Parliament,Congress,etc.

Ø act as充当,担任fulfil the function or serve the purpose of

Ø 假装;装腔作势to pretend to have feelings, qualities etc that are different from your true ones

Ø 起作用;见效take effect;have a particular effect

•the 1989 Children's Act.1989年《儿童法》。

•they need volunteers to act as foster-parents.他们需要志愿者来充当养父母。

•When he’s angry, he acts the fool. 他一生气就装傻。

•bacteria act on proteins and sugar.细菌对蛋白质和糖起作用。

acquire 获得;取得

Ø 学到,习得,培养(技能,习惯,品质)learn or develop(a skill,habit,or quality)

Ø an acquired taste逐渐养成的爱好something that people only begin to like after they have tried it a few times

•He spent years acquiring his skills as a surgeon. 他花了许多年时间学习外科医生的技能。

•pumpkin pie is an acquired taste.喜欢吃南瓜馅饼是后天养成的嗜好。

address 地址

Ø (多指正式)对.….讲话,致词speak to(a person or an assembly),typically in a formal way

Ø 诉说,书面提交(address something to)say or write remarks or a protest to

Ø 考虑处理(问题)think about and begin to deal with(an issue or problem)

•she addressed the open-air meeting 她在一露天集会上致词

•address your complaints to the Trading Standards Board.向贸易标准委员会提交你的投诉。

•a fundamental problem has still to be addressed.还有一个基本问题要处理。

adjust 适应

Ø 整理〔穿戴物〕if you adjust something you are wearing, you move it slightly so that it is neater, more comfortable etc

•He paused to adjust his spectacles. 他停下来整整眼镜。

advise 建议

Ø (尤指正式地、官方地)通知inform(someone)about a fact or situation,typically in a formal or official way

•you will be advised of the requirements 具体要求会通知你的

afloat 飘浮的

有偿债能力;能维持下去having enough money to pay debts; able to survive

•They will have to borrow £10 million next year, just to stay afloat . 明年他们得举债1 000万英镑才能维持下去。

after 在……之后

Ø 与…对照;与…对比in contrast to sth

Ø 由于;既然because of something that happened earlier

Ø 追求,寻求in pursuit or quest of

Ø 具有…的风格,模仿in the same style as a particular painter, musician etc

•It was pleasantly cool in the house after the sticky heat outside. 与户外的湿热相比,屋里真是凉爽惬意。

•I’m not surprised he walked out, after the way she treated him. 她那样对待他,所以他离开我并不感到吃惊。

•most of them are after money.他们中大多数人在追求金钱。

•a painting after Rembrandt 仿伦勃朗风格的画

air 空气

Ø 摆架子;装腔作势a way of behaving that shows that sb thinks that they are more important, etc. than they really are

Ø 神态;样子;风度;气氛if something or someone has an air of confidence, mystery etc, they seem confident, mysterious etc

Ø 公开发表〔看法〕to express your opinions publicly

Ø 播放,广播to broadcast a programme on television or radio

•I hate the way she puts on airs . 我不喜欢她那装腔作势的样子。

•She looked at him with a determined air. 她看着他,神情坚毅。

•Staff will get a chance to ask questions and air their views. 员工将有机会提问并发表意见。

•The program is due to air next month. 这个节目将于下月播出。

album 相簿

Ø (唱片或盒式磁带等上的)音乐专辑,歌曲专辑;歌集唱片a collection of pieces of music that have been recorded on one record, CD or cassette

•the band's latest album 这个乐队的最新专辑

alien 外星人

Ø 陌生(而令人烦扰或讨厌)的unfamiliar and disturbing or distasteful

Ø 外国的,异域的;异族的belonging to another country or race

•the alien environment of the city 城里陌生的环境。

•alien cultures 异域文化

anchor 锚;抛锚

Ø 电视〕新闻节目主持人,主播someone who reads the news on TV and introduces news reports

Ø 支柱;靠山someone or something that provides a feeling of support and safety

Ø 扎根于〔某种体系、生活方式等〕to be strongly connected with a particular system, way of life etc

•Dan Rather, anchor of the CBC Evening News 哥伦比亚广播公司《晚间新闻》主持人丹•拉瑟

•Dad was the anchor of the family. 爸爸是家里的顶梁柱。

•John’s outlook has always been anchored in the political mainstream. 约翰的观点一直植根于主流政治思想。

answer 回答

Ø 适合;符合;比得上;相配to be suitable for sth; to match sth

Ø (地位、作用等方面的)对应物;相当的人(answer to)a thing or person regarded as being of equivalent status or fulfilling the same role as something or someone from another place

Ø 对...负责;因.…受到谴责(answer for)be responsible or to blame for

•entrepreneurship is necessary to answer the needs of national and international markets.满足国内和国际市场的需要必须要有企业开拓精神。

•the press called her Britain's answer to Marilyn Monroe.新闻界称她为英国的玛里莲•梦露。

•if you persist in clinging to me in that way I will not answer for the consequences如果你坚持用那样的方式缠我,我不会对后果负责

argue 争论

Ø 论证;争辩to state, giving clear reasons, that something is true, should be done etc

Ø 显示出,表明to show that something clearly exists or is true

•She argued the case for changing the law. 她提出论据,力主修改法律。

•The statement argues a change of attitude by the management. 这则声明表明管理层态度的转变。

arm 手臂

Ø 以武器装备,武装to provide weapons for yourself, an army, a country etc in order to prepare for a fight or a war

Ø 提供;配备,装备to provide all the information, skills, or equipment you need to do something

•The local farmers have armed themselves with rifles and pistols. 当地的农场主用步枪和手枪武装自己。

•Arm yourself with all the facts you need to argue your case. 你要准备好证明你观点所需的全部论据。

arrival 到来;到达

Ø (新发展、新现象或新产品的)出现the emergence or appearance of a new development,phenomenon,or product

•the arrival of democracy.民主的出现。

article 文章

Ø 物品,物件〔尤指整套中的一件〕formal a thing, especially one of a group of things

Ø (法律文件或协议中的)条款,条文,规定(多指概述一规则或规定的)。a separate clause or paragraph of a legal document or agreement,typically one outlining a single rule or regulation

•household articles 家居用品

•he is already in articles 他已经按合同规定在实习了

author 作者;作家

Ø (尤指计划或主意的)创始者,发起人an originator or creator of something,especially a plan or idea

Ø 创作,写作,撰写to be the writer of a book, report etc

•the authors of the peace plan.和平计划的创始人。

•she has authored several articles on wildlife.她写了几篇关于野生动物的文章。

authority 权力;权威

Ø 官方机构;政府部门an official organization or a government department that has the power to make decisions, and has particular responsibilities

Ø 〔正式的〕许可,授权official permission to do something

•the local 地方政府部门

•The attack took place under the authority of the UN Security Council. 这次进攻是在联合国安全理事会授权下进行的。

automatic 自动的

Ø 不自觉的,无意识的,不假思索的done without thinking, especially because you have done the same thing many times before

Ø 〔根据规定或法律〕必然发生的,自动的something that is automatic always happens as a result of something you have done, especially because of a rule or law

•Practise the breathing techniques until they become automatic. 练习这些呼吸技巧直到成为无意识的动作。

•Littering results in an automatic fine. 乱扔垃圾必然要罚款。

attribute 归属;把…归于

Ø 特性,特质,属性a quality or feature, especially one that is considered to be good or useful

•What attributes should a good manager possess? 一名优秀的经理应该具备哪些素质?

average 平均的

Ø 〔数量〕中等的,适中的an amount or quantity is not unusually big or small

Ø 平常的,普通的having qualities that are typical of most people or things

•They have an average-size front garden and a large rear garden. 他们有一个中等大小的前院和一个大后院。

•The average American has not even thought about next year’s election. 普通的美国人甚至还没有想过明年的选举。

bad 坏的

Ø 很,非常〔很多人认为此用法是错的〕a word used to mean ‘badly’ that many people think is incorrect

Ø (疼痛、危险或其他不良后果)严重的;厉害的(of something causing pain,danger,or other unwelcome consequences)severe or intense

Ø 无价值的;伪造的worthless;not valid

•I need that money bad. 我急需那笔钱。

•bad headaches 剧烈的头痛

•he ran up 87 bad cheques.他开了87张空头支票。

balance 平衡

Ø (应付与所付的)结欠,差额the difference between an amount due and an amount paid

Ø 抵偿;权衡;比较offset or compare the value of(one thing)with another

•the holiday balance must be paid by 8 weeks before departure.度假应付费用的差额必须在离开前8周付清。

•the cost of obtaining such information needs to be d against its benefits.

获取这种信息的代价需与其好处相比较。

bargain 便宜货

Ø (双方或多方)协定;协议an agreement between two or more people or groups as to what each will do for the other

Ø 预料,指望(bargain for/on)be prepared for;expect

Ø 卑鄙的,下流的,无耻的not having good moral principles

•bargains between political parties supporting the government.支持政府的各政党间的协定。

•I got more information than I'd bargained for 我获得了比预期更多的信息

•base attitudes and desires 卑鄙的态度和欲望

behave 表现

Ø (机器)运转,(自然现象)起作用(of a machine or natural phenomenon)work or function in a specified way

•each car behaves differently.每辆车的运转情况都有差别。

behaviour 行为;举止;态度

Ø 〔科学上的〕表现方式,活动方式;特点the things that something in science normally does

Ø (机器的)运行方式(自然现象的)起作用的方式the way in which a machine or natural phenomenon works or functions

•the behaviour of human chromosomes 人类染色体的特点

•the erratic behaviour of the old car.那辆旧车不稳定的性能。

believe 相信;信任

Ø 认为,以为,猜想hold(something)as an opinion:think or suppose

•I believe we've already met 我想我们见过面。

benefit 利益;有益于

Ø (国家或保险计划按规定支付的)补助费,救济金,抚恤金,保险金payment made by the state or an insurance scheme to someone entitled to receive it,for example an unemployed person

•a state benefit 政府救济金

betray 背叛

Ø 泄露(机密,信息)treacherously reveal(secrets or information)

Ø <喻>显露,暴露;证明reveal the presence of;be evidence of

•many of those employed by diplomats betrayed secrets and sold ciphers.外交官们雇佣的人当中有很多都向外泄露机密、出卖密码。

•she drew a deep breath that betrayed her indignation.她深深地吸了一口气,这说明她很愤怒。

bill 钞票;清单

Ø 议案,法案a written proposal for a new law, that is brought to a parliament so that it can be discussed

Ø 把(人或项目)列入节目单,安排...演出,预定(一般作be billed)list(a person or event)in a programme

Ø 宣传(某人或某物)(bill someone/thing as)describe someone or something in a particular way,especially in order to advertise them or emphasize their importance

•The senator introduced a bill that would increase the minimum wage. 那位参议员提交了一个拟提高最低工资的法案。

•they were billed to appear but did not show up.按计划他们是要出场的,但没有露面。

•he was billed as the new Sean Connery.他被作为“肖恩•康纳里再世”来宣传。

blank 空白的;空虚的

Ø 无表情的,木然的a face or look shows no emotion, understanding, or interest

Ø 掩盖;使模糊不清;使显得空白cover up,obscure,or cause to appear blank or empty

•we were met by blank looks.我们看到的是茫然的表情。

•electronic countermeasures blanked out the radar signals.电子对抗手段消隐了雷达信号。

body 身体;主体

Ø 团体,机构,群体a group of people who work together to do a particular job or who are together for a particular purpose

Ø 大量;大批a large or substantial amount of something;a mass or collection of something

Ø 赋予(抽象事物)以形体,使具体化(body something forth)give material form to something abstract

•The British Medical Association is the doctors’ professional body. 英国医学会是医生的专业团体。

•large bodies of seawater 汪洋大海。

•he bodied forth the traditional Prussian remedy for allills.他把传统的普鲁士药方用于治疗各种疾病。

book 书籍

Ø 成册[成套]的东西a set of things such as stamps, matches, or tickets, held together inside a paper cover

Ø 账目,账簿,会计簿written records of the financial accounts of a business

Ø 预订,预购,预约to make arrangements to stay in a place, eat in a restaurant, go to a theatre etc at a particular time in the future

•a cheque book 支票簿

•An accountant will examine the company’s books. 一名会计师将给公司查账。

•To get tickets, you have to book in advance . 你必须提前订购才能买到票。

boss 老板

Ø 对…发号施令,指挥〔尤指无权这样做时〕to tell people to do things, give them orders etc, especially when you have no authority to do it

•Five-year-old girls love to boss people around. 五岁的女孩就爱支使别人。

brain 脑袋

Ø 智力;脑力;逻辑思维能力the ability to learn quickly and think about things in a logical and intelligent way

•It doesn't take much brain to work out that both stories can't be true. 不必费多大脑筋就知道,两种说法不可能都是真的。

brand 商标,牌子

Ø 归为 (不好的事物)If someone is branded as something bad, people think they are that thing.

Ø 给…加上〔往往是不公的〕恶名(与上面是同一个意思)to describe someone or something as a very bad type of person or thing, often unfairly

Ø (独特的)一种,一类a particular type or kind of something

Ø 独特的个性;自成一格的形象a particular identity or image regarded as an asset

Ø (用烙铁)打烙印于(动物、囚犯或奴隶身上);以烙铁打标记。mark(an animal or,in former times,a criminal or slave)with a branding iron

Ø 全新的;崭新的(brand new) completely new

•anyone who says anything bad about the country is branded as a traitor

任何说这个国家一点坏话的人都被说成是卖国贼。

•Stealing that money has branded Jim for life – no one will trust him again. 吉姆偷了那笔钱,就一辈子背上了恶名,再也没有人信任他。

•they entertained millons with their inimitable brand of comedy.他们以自己那种无法模仿的喜剧让千百万人快乐。

•you can stll invent your own career,be your own brand.你仍然可以构筑自己的职业生涯,保持自己特有的个性。

•Each cow was branded with the ranch’s logo. 每头母牛都烙上了该牧场的标记。

•a brand new computer 全新的计算机

business 商业;[贸易] 生意

Ø 事业,职业;行业a person's regular occupation,profession,or trade

Ø (必须处理的)事务,职责work that has to be done or matters that have to be attended

Ø <非正式>受欢迎的人(行动或事物)(the business)a very enjoyable or popular person,activity,or thing

Ø <非正式>系列事件(尤指丑闻或有损名誉的事)a series of events,typically a scandalous or discreditable one

Ø 公司,企业,商业机构an organization such as a company, shop, or factory that produces or sells goods or provides a service

•she had to do a lot of smiling in her business 干她那行不得不多陪笑脸

•let's get down to business.让我们言归正传吧。

•spring sking is the business.春季滑雪是受欢迎的运动。

•they must find out about the blackmailing business.他们必须查清那件敲诈勒索事件。

•They don’t know how to run a business. 他们不知道如何经营企业。

buy 

Ø 接受,相信〔尤指不大可能属实的事〕to believe something that someone tells you, especially when it is not likely to be true

•I am not prepared to buy the claim that the ends justify the means 我不准备接受只要目的正当就可以不择手段的说法

C

cake 蛋糕

Ø <喻>(某特定情境下被视为可分割或共享的)钱或资产总额(the cake)the amount of money or assets available in a particular context and regarded as something to be divided up or shared

Ø (厚物,粘物)结块(of a thick or sticky substance)dry or harden into a solid mass

•you have not received a fair slice of the education cake.你没有从教育这个蛋糕中分得合理的一份。

•the blood under his nose was beginning to cake.他鼻子下的血开始结块。

camp 露营

Ø 〔尤指政治上的〕阵营,派别,集团a group of people or organizations who have the same ideas or principles, especially in politics

•the extreme right-wing camp of the party 该党的极右派阵营

calculate 计算

Ø 认定,以为;猜测,判断determine by reasoning,experience,or common sense;reckon or judge

Ø 预期,指望;依靠(calculate on)include as an essential element in one's plans

Ø 打算,计划(一般作be calculated to do something)intend(an action)to have a particular effect

•I was bright enough to calculate that she had been on vacation.我聪明地判断出她刚度完假。

•he may have calculated on maximizing pressure for policy revision.他可能指望最大限度地施压以修改政策。

•his last words were calculated to wound her.他最后的那些话是有意伤害她的。

calling 召;呼唤

Ø (对某种生活或职业的)强烈冲动,欲望;使命感,天职a strong urge towards a particular way of life or career;a vocation

Ø 专业;职业a profession or occupation

•those who have a special calling to minister to others'needs.那些有满足别人需求的特别使命感之人。

•he considered engineering one of the highest possible callings.他认为工程师可能是最佳职业之一。

cancer 癌症

Ø 弊病,社会恶习an evil influence that affects a lot of people and is difficult to stop

•Drug abuse is the cancer of our society. 吸毒是我们社会的毒瘤。

cap 盖;帽

Ø 〔收入、支出或借贷金额的〕最高限额an upper limit that is put on the amount of money that someone can earn, spend, or borrow

Ø 覆盖,笼罩(常作be capped)form a covering layer or top part of

Ø 胜过;超过;盖过(前面的故事、评论或笑话)follow or reply to(a story,remark,•a cap on local council spending 地方市政会支出的最高限额

Ø or joke)by producing a better or more apposite one

•snow-capped mountains.山顶积雪的群山。

•he prayed no wit would cap his remark with some repartee.他祈祷没人能超过他略带诡辩的评论。

carry 携带;搬运

Ø 具有〔某种特质〕to have something as a particular quality

Ø 登载;广播;报道if a newspaper, a television or radio broadcast, or a website carries a piece of news, an advertisement etc, it prints it or broadcasts it

Ø 印有;写有if something carries information, the information is written on it

Ø 承担〔责任〕to be responsible for doing something

Ø 销售;出售if a shop/store carries a particular item, it has it for sale

•Degree qualifications carry international recognition. 学位证书获国际认可。

•The national TV network carries religious programmes. 全国电视网播出宗教节目。

•All tobacco products must carry a health warning. 所有的烟草产品必须印有健康警告。

•Each team member is expected to carry a fair share of the workload. 每一位队员都应公平分担工作量。

•We carry a range of educational software. 我们出售各种教育软件。

cat 

Ø 猫科动物a wild animal of the cat family

•the big cats (= lions , tigers , etc.) 大型猫科动物(狮、虎等)

cause 原因;引起;使遭受

Ø 事业,理想,目标an aim, belief or organization that a group of people support or fight for

•My father fought for the Nationalist cause. 我父亲为民族党的事业而奋斗。

ceiling 天花板

Ø <喻>(价格、工资或开支的)最高限度,最大限额,上限。an upper limit,typically one set of prices,wages,or expenditure

Ø 最大飞行高度,升限;云幕高度the greatest height an aircraft can fly at or the level of the clouds

•The government imposed a ceiling on imports of foreign cars. 政府对进口外国汽车的数量设了上限。

•the altitude of the base of a cloud layer 云幂底部高度。

challenge 挑战

Ø 质疑〔某事物的正确性、合法性等〕,对…表示怀疑 to refuse to accept that something is right, fair, or legal

Ø 考验…的技术[能力];激发;激励to test the skills or abilities of someone or something

•a challenge to the legality of the banning order.对禁令合法性的质疑。

•Every teacher ought to be challenging kids to think about current issues. 每一位老师都应激励学生思考当前的问题。

chapter 章,回

Ø (历史上或个人生活中的)特定时期a distinctive period in history or in a person'sife

Ø 一系列;一连串a seres or sequence

Ø 〔俱乐部等大型组织的〕地方分会the local members of a large organization such as a club

•the people are about to begin a new chapter in their history.人民将翻开自己历史上新的篇章。

•the latest episode in a chapter of problems.一系列问题中最新的一个

•the local chapter of the American Legion 美国军团的地方分会

check 检查,核对;<美>支票

Ø 阻碍,制止;抑制to stop something bad from getting worse or continuing to happen

Ø 托运〔行李等〕to leave your bags at an official place so they can be put on a plane or a train, or to take someone’s bags in order to do this

•The police are failing to take adequate measures to check the growth in crime. 警方未能采取适当的措施来阻止犯罪率上升。

•Any luggage over five kilos must be checked. 超过五公斤的行李都必须托运。

climate 气候

Ø 舆论趋势;社会风气the prevailing trend of public opinion or of another aspect of public life

•Small businesses are finding it hard to survive in the present economic climate. 小企业感到在当前的经济形势下很难生存。

cloud 

Ø <喻>阴影;疑团;麻烦;忧虑used to refer to a state or cause of gloom,suspicion,trouble,or worry

Ø 使(事件,心理过程)模糊;使迷惑make(a matter or mental process)unclear or uncertain;confuse

Ø 毁坏,损坏spoil or mar(something)

Ø 显得阴沉(或恐惧、愤怒等);看起来忧愁(或害怕、愤怒等)to show sadness, fear, anger, etc.; to make sb look sad, afraid, angry, etc.

•the only cloud on the immediate horizon is raising a mortgage 眼前惟一的麻烦就是筹措抵押贷款

•don't allow your personal feelings to cloud your judgement.别放任你的个人感情让你判断不清。

•the general election was clouded by violence.大选被暴力事件破坏了。

•Her face clouded over with anger. 她满面怒容。

code 代码,密码

Ø 法典,法规;行为准则,道德规范a set of rules, laws, or principles that tell people how to behave

•The Torah is the basis for all the Jewish laws and their moral code . 《托拉》是所有犹太法律和道德规范的基础。

coin 硬币,钱币

Ø 创造,杜撰〔新词或短语〕to invent a new word or expression, especially one that many people start to use

•The word ‘aromatherapy’ was coined in the 1920s. aromatherapy (芳香疗法)这个词是在20世纪20年代创造出来的。

concern 关心;忧虑

Ø 企业;公司a business or company

•The restaurant is a family concern. 这家餐馆是一个家族企业。

confident 自信的

Ø 确信的;有把握的sure that something will happen in the way that you want or expect

•We are confident next year’s profits will be higher. 我们确信明年的利润会增加。

cook 

Ø <非正式>篡改;伪造alter dishonestly;falsify

Ø 秘密计划;密谋to be being planned in a secret way

Ø 干得很好,干得出色used to say that someone is doing something very well

•The Government was cooking the books and misleading the public. 政府在篡改数据误导公众。

•They’ve got something cooking, and I don’t think I like it. 他们在搞什么鬼把戏,我觉得不会是好事。

•The band’s really cooking tonight. 今晚乐队表现极好。

create 创造

Ø 封[任命]某人为…to officially give someone a special rank or title

Ø <英,非正式>大惊小怪;抱怨make a fuss;complain

•James I created him Duke of Buckingham. 詹姆斯一世封他为白金汉公爵。

•little kids create because they hate being ignored.小孩子常发牢骚是因为他们不愿意被人忽视。

cry 哭;叫

Ø (紧急的)呼吁;恳求an urgent appeal or entreaty

Ø 需求;公众舆论,呼声a demand or opinion expressed by many people

•fund-raisers have issued a cry for help.资金筹集者已发出了求助的呼吁。

•peace became the popular cry.和平已成为公众的呼声。

culture 文化,文明

Ø 【生】(细菌,细胞组织等的)培养the cultivation of bacteria,tissue cells,etc.in an artificial medium containing nutrients

Ø 栽培,种植the practice of growing crops

•the cells proliferate readily in culture.这种细胞培养起来极易增殖。

•clearing forest for rice culture 砍伐森林来种植稻谷

D

damage 损害;损毁

Ø (法院判定的)损害赔偿金an amount of money that a court decides should be paid to sb by the person, company, etc. that has caused them harm or injury

•He was ordered to pay damages totalling £30 000. 他被责令支付总额为3万英镑的损害赔偿金。

dead 死的

Ø 非常,十分very

Ø 直接地;准确地directly or exactly

Ø 完全地completely

Ø 〔胳膊、腿等身体部位〕失去知觉的,麻木的a part of your body that is dead has no feeling in it, especially because the blood supply to it has been stopped

Ø 不活跃的;不被使用的not active or being used

•He was dead good-looking. 他长得极为英俊。

•I stared dead ahead at the doorway. 我直直地盯着门道看。

•He was obviously dead drunk . 他显然醉得不行了。

•When I got up my foot had gone dead where I’d been sitting on it. 我起来的时候,脚上坐着时压到的地方都麻了。

•The luxury car market has been dead in recent months. 近几个月来豪华汽车市场生意萧条。

debate 辩论,争论

Ø 仔细考虑;思考;盘算to think carefully about sth before making a decision

•I debated with myself whether I should tell anyone. 我在反复考虑是否应该告诉别人。

department 部门;系;科;局

Ø 某人的职责范围(或知识范围)to be sth that sb is responsible for or knows a lot about

•Don't ask me about it—that's her department. 这事别问我—那是她的职责范围。

depth 深度

Ø 〔情感的〕强烈程度;〔情况的〕严重程度how strong an emotion is or how serious a situation is

Ø 〔对某一专题所提供的信息的〕深度,详细程度when a lot of details about a subject are provided or considered

Ø (思想的)深奥,深刻complexity and profundity of thought

Ø (感情)深切,深厚intensity of emotion,usually considered as a laudable quality

•People need to realize the depth of the problem. 人们必须认识到这个问题的严重程度。

•Network news coverage often lacks depth. 电视网络上的新闻报道常常缺乏深度。

•the book has unexpected depth.此书的深刻性出人意料。

•a man of compassion and depth of feeling.富有同情心、感情深厚的男人。

develop 成长,发展,壮大

Ø 形成〔观点〕;研制〔产品〕;制订〔规划〕to design or make a new idea, product, system etc over a period of time

Ø 患(病),得病if you develop a disease or illness, or if it develops, you start to have it

Ø 〔问题或困难〕出现,产生;加剧if a problem or difficult situation develops, it begins to happen or exist, or it gets worse

Ø 冲洗,使〔底片〕显影to make a photograph out of a photographic film, using chemicals

Ø 详细阐述〔论点或观点〕to make an argument or idea clearer, by studying it more or by speaking or writing about it in more detail

•Scientists are developing new drugs to treat arthritis. 科学家正在研制治疗关节炎的新药。

•Some alcoholics develop liver disease. 一些酗酒者会患上肝病。

•Trouble is developing in the cities. 城市里骚乱正在上演。

•Did you ever get the pictures developed ? 你到底有没有把照片冲洗出来?

•We will develop a few of these points in the seminar. 在研讨会上我们将详细阐述其中的一些观点。

design 设计

Ø 专为某种目的(或意图)做(或策划)(常作be designed)do or plan(something)with a specific purpose or intention in mind 专为某种目的(或意图)做(或策划)

•the tax changes were designed to stimulate economic growth.改变税收是为了刺激经济增长。

directly 直接地;立即;一…就

Ø 恰好,正好exactly in a particular position or direction

•The girl was sitting directly opposite him. 那女孩坐在他正对面。

discount 折扣

Ø 忽视,不重视〔某事〕to regard something as unlikely to be true or important

•Experts discounted the accuracy of the polls. 专家对这次民意调查的准确性不以为然。

discourage 使气馁

Ø (通过表示不赞成或创造困难而)(试图)阻止prevent or seek to prevent(something)by showing disapproval or creating difficulties

•the plan is designed to discourage the use of private cars.这个计划的目的就是要设法阻止大家使用私家车。

doctor 医生;博士

Ø 篡改(文件,照片);伪造change the content or appearance of(a document or picture)in order to deceive;falsify

Ø 在(饮料、食物等)中加入浓烈(或有害)的成分alter the content of(a drink,food,or substance)by adding strong or harmful ingredients

Ø  〔尤指不是医生的人〕给…治病to give someone medical treatment, especially when you are not a doctor

•the reports could have been doctored.这些报告可能是伪造的。

•he denied doctoring Stephen's drinks.他否认在斯蒂芬的饮料里加了东西。

•Bill doctored the horses with a strong-smelling ointment. 比尔用一种气味强烈的膏药给那些马治病。

dominant 占优势的;支配的

Ø 〔基因〕显性的a dominant gene causes a child to have a particular physical feature or illness, even if it has been passed on from only one parent

•The disease is under the control of a single dominant gene. 这种疾病受一个显性基因控制

earth 地球

Ø 泥土,土壤the substance that plants grow in

Ø 陆地;地面〔与海洋或天空相对〕the hard surface of the world, as opposed to the sea or air

Ø <主英>(某物的)大量;巨额(the earth)to signify a very large amount of something

Ø 把〔电器〕接地to make electrical equipment safe by connecting it to the ground with a wire

•a lump of earth 一团泥土

•They watched the kite fall back to earth. 他们望着风筝落回地面。

•it doesn't have to cost the earth to look good.要漂亮不一定要花大钱。

•Make sure that the machine is properly earthed. 要确保机器妥善接地。

economy 经济

Ø (就经济体制而言)国家;经济制度a country, when you are thinking about its economic system

•Ireland was one of the fastest-growing economies in Western Europe in the 1990s. 在20世纪90年代爱尔兰是西欧经济发展最快的国家之一。

effort 努力

Ø 特别行动work that people do to achieve something in a particular situation

Ø 成果,成就the result of an attempt

•the fundraising effort 筹款活动

•he was a keen gardener,winning many prizes for his efforts.他热衷于园艺,并因此获得了许多成果奖。

elect 选举;选择

Ø (人)选中的,卓越的(of a person)chosen or singled out

•one of the century's elect.本世纪卓越人物之一。

employ 雇用

Ø 应用;运用;使用to use sth such as a skill, method, etc. for a particular purpose

•the methods they have employed to collect the data.他们用来收集数据的方法。

engineer 工程师

Ø 精心安排(事件,情景);策划skifully or artfully arrange for(an event or situation)to occur

Ø 设计;制造(机器,建筑物)design and build(a machine or structure)

Ø 改变〔动植物等〕的基因结构to change the genetic structure of a plant, animal etc

Ø 策划者;设计者;发明者a skilful contriver or originator of something

•she engineered another meeting with him.她精心安排了与他的另一次会面。

•the men who engineered the tunnel.设计隧道的人们。

•genetically engineered crops 转基因农作物

•the prime engineer of the approach.这种方法的主要发明者。

enterprise 企业

Ø 创业精神;事业心;进取心the ability to think of new activities or ideas and make them work

•We’re looking for young people with enterprise and creativity. 我们在寻找有事业心和创造力的年轻人。

epidemic 传染病

Ø 蔓延;盛行;猖獗a sudden,widespread occurrence of a particular undesirable phenomenon

•an epidemic of violent crime.暴力犯罪的猖獗。

episode 插曲;一段情节

Ø 事件; 经历You can refer to an event or a short period of time as an episode if you want to suggest that it is important or unusual, or has some particular quality.

•This episode is bound to be a deep embarrassment for Washington. 这一事件必然使华盛顿大为尴尬。

erupt 爆发

Ø (愤怒、激情、喜悦等情感)迸发give vent to anger,enthusiasm,amusement,or other feelings in a sudden and noisy way

•the soldiers erupted in fits of laughter.士兵们发出阵阵笑声。

even 甚至

Ø 平的,平坦的flat and level, with no parts that are higher than other parts

Ø 〔比率、速度或温度〕平稳的,均匀的an even rate, speed, or temperature is steady and does not change

Ø 平分的,均分的divided equally, so that there is the same amount of something in each place, for each person etc

Ø 偶数的,双数的an even number can be divided exactly by two

•The floor must be completely even before we lay the tiles. 地面必须完全平整后才能铺地砖。

•The room is kept at an even temperature. 这个房间保持恒温状态。

•Divide the dough into three even amounts. 把生面团分成三等份。

•2, 4, 6 and 8 are even numbers. 2、4、6、8是偶数。

excite 激动

Ø 引起(某种感情或反应);激起bring out or give rise to(a feeling or reaction)

•the ability to excite interest in others.引起他人兴趣的能力。

exhibit 展览;;展示会

Ø 展示,显示〔品质、情感或能力〕to clearly show a particular quality, emotion, or ability

Ø 〔法庭上出示的〕证物an object that is shown in court to prove whether someone is guilty or not

•a patient who is exhibiting classic symptoms of mental illness 显现出精神病典型症状的患者

•Exhibit A is the hammer found next to the victim. 证物甲是在受害者身边发现的一把锤子。

expedition 远征;探险队

Ø <正式>迅速;敏捷promptness or speed in doing something

•the landlord shall remedy the defects with all possible expedition.房东必须尽快采取补救措施解决这些不足之处。

expire 呼气

Ø (文件,授权书,协议)期满;成为无效;失效(of a document,authorization,or agreement)cease to be valid,typically after a fixed period of time

•his driving licence expired.他的驾驶执照过期了。

fan 风扇;爱好者

Ø 激起;煽动(信念,情绪)cause(a belief or emotion)to become stronger or more widespread

•a fury fanned by press coverage.新闻报道激起的怒火。

fancy 幻想;想象力

Ø 喜欢,想要to like or want something, or want to do something

Ø 〔酒店、餐厅、汽车等〕昂贵的,豪华的ancy hotels, restaurants, cars etc are expensive and fashionable

Ø (结构或装饰)精心制作的;花式的elaborate in structure or decoration

Ø 复杂的;需要高度技巧的,高难度的complicated and needing a lot of skill

•Fancy a quick drink, Emma? 想喝点什么吗,埃玛?

•Harry took me to a fancy restaurant for our anniversary. 哈里带我去了一家豪华餐厅,庆祝我们的结婚纪念日。

•a fancy computerized system.一个精心制作的计算机化系统。

•I can’t do all that fancy stuff on the computer. 我不会在电脑上做那些复杂的东西。

fashion 时尚

Ø 塑造to influence and form someone’s ideas and opinions

Ø 〔用手或几件工具〕使成形,制作to shape or make something, using your hands or only a few tools

•We are all unique human beings, fashioned by life experiences. 我们都是由各自生活经历塑造而成的独特个体。

•He fashioned a box from a few old pieces of wood. 他用几块旧木板做了一个箱子。

feature 特色,特征

Ø (尤指报刊广播节目的长篇)特写,专题报道a newspaper or magazine article or a broadcast programme devoted to the treatment of a particular topic,typically at length

Ø 放映〔电影〕;上演〔戏剧〕to show a film, play etc

Ø 以…为特色,是…的特征;是…的重要组成to include or show something as a special or important part of something, or to be included as an important part

•a special feature on children's reference books.一篇关于儿童参考读物的专题报道。

•The Retro Theatre is featuring films by Frank Capra this week. 经典剧场本周上映弗兰克•卡普拉导演的影片。

•A study of language should feature in an English literature course. 语言学习应当成为英语文学课的重要组成部分。

fertile 肥沃的;富饶的

Ø (人、动物或植物)能生育的,可繁殖的(of a person,animal,or plant)able to conceive young or produce seed

Ø (人的头脑或想像力)丰富的,富于创新的。(of a person's mind or imagination)producing many new and inventive ideas with ease

Ø (情况,问题)富有新思想的;发人深思的(of a situation or subject)being fruitful and productive in generating new ideas

•Karen carefully calculated the period when she was most fertile.卡伦仔细地计算了自己的最佳受孕期。

•a product of Flynn's fertile imagination.弗林极富想像力的一个作品。

•a series of fertile debates within the social sciences.社会科学领域内一系列富有创见的辩论。

fetch 拿;取来

Ø 卖得,售得〔尤用于新闻报道〕to be sold for a particular amount of money, especially at a public sale – used especially in news reports

Ø 使作出〔某种反应〕;吸引来;引起to make people react in a particular way

•The painting is expected to fetch at least $20 million. 这幅画预计至少能卖两千万美元。

•This announcement fetched a huge cheer from the audience. 这一宣告博得听众极其热烈的欢呼声。

fever 发烧

Ø 狂热,异常激动,高度活跃if people’s feelings are at fever pitch, they are extremely excited

•The nation was at fever pitch in the days leading up to the election. 大选前几天,全国处于狂热的兴奋之中。

field 牧场

Ø 使参加竞赛[选举,战斗]if you field a team, an army etc, they represent you or fight for you in a competition, election, or war

Ø 〔研究或工作的〕领域,范围a subject that people study or an area of activity that they are involved in as part of their work

Ø 处理,应付〔问题、电话等〕to answer questions, telephone calls etc, especially when there are a lot of them or the questions are difficult

Ø 现场,实地work or study that is done in the field is done in the real world rather than in a class or laboratory

•The Ecology Party fielded 109 candidates . 生态党推举了109名候选人。

•Peter’s an expert in his field . 彼得是他那个行业里的专家。

•The Minister fielded questions on the Middle East. 那位部长回答了有关中东的问题。

•His theories have not yet been tested in the field. 他的理论尚未经过实地检验。

finance 财政

Ø 为…提供资金to provide money, especially a lot of money, to pay for something

•The concerts are financed by the Arts Council. 音乐会由艺术协会出资举办。

find 找到;发现

Ø 感到,觉得,认为to have a particular feeling or opinion, or to have a particular feeling or opinion about someone or something

•She found the work very dull. 她觉得这工作很无聊。

fog 

Ø <喻>搅乱形势(或思维)的事something that obscures and confuses a situation or someone's thought processes

Ø <喻>使迷惑,使不解bewilder or puzzle(someone)

•the origins of local government are lost in a fog of detail.地方自治的由来堕入细枝末节的云雾之中,难以考证。

•she stared at him,confusion fogging her brain.她凝视着他,脑子里一团雾水。

forge 熔炉;锻造

Ø 形成,缔造〔尤指与其他人、团体或国家形成牢固的关系〕to develop something new, especially a strong relationship with other people, groups, or countries

Ø 伪造,假冒〔尤指文书、笔迹等〕to illegally copy something, especially something

Ø 稳步前进;坚定地继续to move somewhere or continue doing something in a steady determined way

•The two women had forged a close bond. 这两个女人结下了亲密情谊。

printed or written, to make people think that it is real

•Someone stole my credit card and forged my signature. 有人偷了我的信用卡,并假冒我的签名。

•Crowds of people forged through the streets towards the embassy. 人群坚定地穿过街道走向大使馆。

forgive 原谅

Ø 免除(债务)cancel(a debt)

•he proposed that their debts should be forgiven.他提议免除他们的债务。

future 将来的,未来的

Ø 期货(futures) goods or shares that are bought at agreed prices but that will be delivered and paid for at a later time

•the futures market 期货市场

G

game 游戏;比赛

Ø 行当,行业an area of work or business

Ø 愿意尝试〔危险、新鲜或困难的事〕的willing to try something dangerous, new, or difficult

Ø 作为食物的)猎物肉,野味the flesh of these mammals or birds,used as food(

Ø 某人的比赛技巧,某人的运动技能how well someone plays a particular game or sport

•I’ve been in this game for over ten years. 我干这一行已经有十多年了。

•Okay. I’m game if you are. 好吧,你上我也上。

•a game pie.野味馅饼。

•the strongest aspect of his game 他比赛技巧中最强的一面

given 赠予的

Ø 指定的,特定的any particular time, situation, amount etc that is being used as an example

Ø 考虑到,鉴于taking something into account

Ø 已知(或既定)事实(或情况);必然的事物(情况)a known or established fact or situation

•The rules are to be followed in any given situation. 这些规则在任何情况下都要遵守。

•Given the circumstances, you’ve done really well. 鉴于这种情况,你已经算是处理得很好了。

•at a couture house,attentive service is a given.女式时装店肯定会提供殷勤服务的。

global 全球的

Ø 全面的,整体的considering all the parts of a problem or situation together

•We are taking a global view of our business. 我们从全局来考虑我们的生意。

ground 地面;土地

Ø (知识、讨论或思考的)范围,领域an area of knowledge or subject of discussion or thought

Ø 理由,根据(grounds)factors forming a basis for action or the justification for a belief

Ø (抽象事物)建立在牢固的理论(或实践)基础上(一般作be grounded in)give(something abstract)a firm theoretical or practical basis使

•he shifted the argument on to theoretical grounds of his own choosing.他将论点转移到自己选择的理论领域。

•there are some grounds for optimism 有一些乐观的理由

•the study of history must be grounded in a thorough knowledge of the past.历史研究必须建立在对过去全面了解的基础之上。

harbour 庇护;避难所

Ø 怀有,心存〔不好的想法、恐惧或希望〕to keep bad thoughts, fears, or hopes in your mind for a long time

Ø 包含;藏有to contain something, especially something hidden and dangerous

•I think he’s harbouring some sort of grudge against me. 我觉得他对我有点怀恨在心。

•Sinks and draining boards can harbour germs. 洗涤槽和沥水板可能藏有病菌。

hatch 孵化

Ø 策划(阴谋,计划)conspire to devise(a plot or plan)

•the little plot that you and Sylvia hatched up last night.你和西尔维亚昨天晚上想出来的小小阴谋。

heavy 沉重的

Ø <非正式>重要人物,要员 an important person

Ø 很多的,大量的;程度大的;严重的great in amount, degree, or severity

Ø 难懂的;难办的difficult to understand or deal with

Ø <非正式>(尤指充当保镖的)彪形大汉,壮汉a large,strong man,especially one hired for protection

Ø be heavy into sth沉溺于某事物to be very involved in an activity, especially one that is not good for you

•music business heavies.音乐界的重要人物。

•Heavy rain has caused flooding in many areas. 大雨在很多地区造成水灾。

•I found his latest novel a bit heavy going . 我认为他最新的小说有点难懂。

•Eric was real heavy into drugs for a while. 埃里克曾一度沉溺于毒品。

•I needed money to pay off the heavies.我需要一笔钱把保镖们打发走。

hit 打;打击

Ø 达到〔某一水平或数量〕to reach a particular level or number

Ø 有效,生效,起作用take effect

Ø 使突然清楚地意识到,使突然领悟be suddenly and vividly realized by

Ø (音乐,电影,戏剧)成功(of a piece of music,film,or play)be successful

Ø <非正式>喜欢,钟爱;认真对待used to express the idea that someone is taking up a pursuit or taking it seriously

Ø 〔突然〕被闻到;被看到if a smell or sight hits you, you suddenly smell or see it

•Sales have hit the 1 million mark . 销售额达到100万大关。

•we sat waiting for the caffeine to hit.我们坐着等待咖啡因起作用。

•it hit her that I wanted to settle down here.她突然意识到我想在这儿定居。

•actors are promised a pay increase if a show hits.演员得到承诺如果演出成功就加工资。

•more and more teenagers are hitting the books.越来越多的青少年喜爱书籍了。

•The smell of stale smoke hit him as he entered. 他进去的时候一股难闻的烟味扑鼻而来。

husband 丈夫

Ø 节约使用(资源)use(resources)economically

•the need to husband his remaining strength.保养他剩余体力的需要。

I

imagine 想象

Ø 料想;认为to think that sth is probably true

Ø 误以为;胡乱猜想;猜测to believe sth that is not true

•I don't imagine (that) they'll refuse. 我认为他们不会拒绝。

•He's always imagining (that) we're talking about him behind his back. 他总是胡乱猜想我们在背后说他的闲话。

immune 免疫的

Ø 受保护的;免除的(尤指无需尽义务或不受影响的)protected or exempt,especially from an obligation or the effects of something

•they are immune from legal action.他们免受诉讼。

index 索引

Ø 〔用于判断或量度水平的〕标志,指标a standard by which the level of something can be judged or measured

Ø 使〔工资、养老金等〕与物价水平挂钩to arrange for the level of wages, pensions etc to increase or decrease according to the level of prices

•The changing size of an infant’s head is considered an index of brain growth. 婴儿头围不断变大标志着大脑在发育。

•demands that wages be indexed to the rise in prices 要求工资与物价上涨挂钩

industry 产业;工业

Ø 勤劳,勤奋the fact of working hard

Ø 范围,领域,界〔指规模过大,含贬义〕an area of work which has grown too large

•Gould is a man of great industry. 古尔德是一个很勤劳的人。

•another book from the Shakespeare industry 庞杂的莎士比亚研究领域的又一部专著

innovation 创新,革新

Ø 新方法;新观念;新产品a new method,idea,product,etc.

•They produced the first vegetarian beanburger – an innovation which was rapidly exported. 他们制造出第一个素式豆堡包–一种被迅速销往国外的新食品。

intelligence 智力

Ø 情报,谍报information about the secret activities of foreign governments, the military plans of an enemy etc

Ø 情报人员;情报机构a group of people or an organization that gathers this information for their government

•According to our intelligence, further attacks were planned. 根据我们的情报,还会有更进一步的攻击。

•US Military Intelligence 美国军事情报处

interest 兴趣,爱好;利息

Ø 好处,利益,福利the advantage or benefit of a person or group

Ø (尤指金融方面的)股本,股份;关联a stake,share,or involvement in an undertaking,especially a financial one

•the merger is not contrary to the public interest 这一企业合并与公众利益并不相悖

•holders of voting rights must disclose their interests 有投票权的人必须公布自己的股份

invite 邀请,招待

Ø (指行为或情况)招致,引起;吸引,诱使,怂恿(of an action or situation)tend to elicit(a particular reaction or response)or to tempt(someone)to do something

•his use of the word did ittle but invite criticism.他使用该词没起到任何作用反倒招来批评。

issue 问题

Ø 发表〔声明〕;颁布,发出〔命令、警告等〕to officially make a statement, give an order, warning etc

Ø 提供,分配,分发supply or distribute(something)

Ø (出版物的)期,号each of a regular series of publications

•a warning issued by the Surgeon General (美国)卫生局局长发出的警告

•licences were issued indiscriminately to any company.一视同仁地把许可证发给各公司。

•the December issue of the magazine.杂志的12月号。

L

lag 落后(于),拖后

Ø 〔两个事件之间的〕时间间隔,相隔的时间a delay or period of waiting between one event and a second event

•a time lag 时间滞差

lame 跛足的

Ø 〔解释或借口〕无说服力的,站不住脚的a lame excuse or explanation is weak and difficult to believe

•a lame attempt to deflect criticism 转移批评的一个无力的尝试

last 最后的

Ø 最不可能的,最不适合的(the last)the least likely or suitable

Ø (过程,活动,状态)持续,继续(of a process,activity,or state of things)continue for a specified period of time

•addicts are often the last people to face up to their problems 瘾君子们常是最不能面对自身问题的人

•the guitar solo lasted for twenty minutes 吉他独奏持续了20分钟

leg 

Ø 〔旅程或赛程的〕一段,一程one part of a long journey or race

•the final leg of the Tour de France 环法自行车赛的最后一程

M

machine 机器

Ø 机器似的人,麻木呆板的人 〔指没有感情和思想〕someone who seems to behave like a machine and to have no feelings or thoughts

Ø <喻>机构,权力组织an efficient and wel-organized group of powerful people

Ø 〔控制某组织的〕核心人物,领导核心〔常含贬义〕a group of people who control and organize some-thing – often used to show disapproval

Ø 天生具有…能力的人[动物]a person or animal that does something very well or without having to think about it

•comedians are more than just laugh machines.喜剧演员远远不只是逗笑的机器。

•his campaign illustrated the continuing strength of a powerful political machine.

他的竞选活动展现了强大政治机器的持续威力。

•the bureaucrats of the party machine 政党核心组织的官僚

•In the tiger, nature has produced the perfect hunting machine. 大自然让老虎成为天生的捕猎高手。

manage 管理

Ø 设法做成,努力完成〔困难的事〕to succeed in doing something difficult, especially after trying very hard

Ø 处理,应付;承受succeed in dealing with or withstanding(something)

•Juventus managed two goals in the last ten minutes. 在最后十分钟里,尤文图斯队攻进了两个球。

•there was more stress and anxiety than he could manage.压力之大,焦虑之深,非他所能承受。

map 地图

Ø 绘制〔某地区〕的地图to make a map of a particular area

Ø 发现,表示出〔某物的形状、排列形式、其移动或工作的方式〕to discover or show information about something, especially about its shape or arrangement, or how it moves or works

Ø 〔显示岩石、天气、人口类型等具体特征的〕图a drawing of an area showing some kind of special feature, for example the type of rocks, weather, population etc

Ø 与...有关,与...有联系with adverbial]be associated or linked to something

•He spent the next fifteen years mapping the Isle of Anglesey. 他在后来的十五年里绘制了安格尔西岛的地图。

•The points at which stress and anxiety emerge can be mapped. 可以找出紧张和焦虑出现的规律。

•an archaeological map of the area 该地区的考古地图

•it is not obvious that the subprocesses of language will map on to individual brain areas.要说语言的次过程和大脑的各个不同区域相联系,这还不明显。

margin 边缘

Ø 利润,赚头the difference between what it costs a business to buy or produce something and what they sell it for

Ø 误差值,误差幅度the degree to which a calculation might or can be wrong

Ø (为确保做成某事或安全而留出的)余地an amount of something included so as to be sure of success or safety

Ø (账户,交易)预付定金;交押金deposit an amount of money with a broker as security for(an account or transaction)or space that you include in order to make sure that you are successful in achieving something

•Margins are low and many companies are struggling. 利润很少,很多公司都在苦苦挣扎。

•The survey has a margin of error of 2.1%. 这次调查的误差值为2.1%。

•there was no margin for error.没有容许出现差错的任何余地。

•[as adj.margined]a margined transaction.预付定金的交易。

N

name 名字

Ø 名声;名誉the opinion that people have about a person or organization

Ø 非常著名的人[公司,产品]a person, company or product that is very famous or is known by many people

Ø 提及;引述mention or cite by name

Ø 委任;委派appoint(someone)to a particular position or task

Ø 说定;决定(数额、时间或地点)specify(a sum,time,or place)as something desired,suggested,or decided on

•He didn’t want to do anything to damage the good name of the company. 他不想做任何有损公司良好声誉的事。

•some of the biggest names in show business 演艺界的一些大牌明星

•the sea is as crystal clear as any spot in the Caribbean you might care to name.这片海与你可能想提及的加勒比海的任何一处水域同样晶莹清澈。

•he was named to head a joint UN-OAS diplomatic effort.他被委任领导联合国美洲国家联合组织的外交调停工作。

•the club have asked Ballymena to name their price for the Scottish striker.俱乐部已要求巴利米纳队把那位苏格兰前锋的价格敲定下来。

narrow 狭窄的

Ø (使)〔范围、差距等〕缩小•if a range, difference etc narrows, or if something narrows it, it becomes less

Ø (在程度、数量或范围等方面)有局限limited in extent,amount,or scope;restricted

Ø (尤指胜利、失利或逃脱)勉强的;差点儿未成功的,很险的。(especially of a victory,defeat,or escape)with only a small margin;barely achieved

Ø 含义精确(或严格)的precise or strict in meaning

•The choice of goods available is narrowing. 可供选择的商品越来越少。

•his ability to get good results within narrow constraints of money and manpower.

他那种能在有限资金和人力制约下取得好业绩的本事。

•He was shaken by his narrow escape from death. 他死里逃生,吓得不轻。

•some of the narrower definitions of democracy.一些对民主更精确的定义。

nature 大自然,自然界

Ø 本质,实质;特性the basic or inherent features of something,especially when seen as characteristic of it

Ø (人或动物的)秉性,天性the innate or essential qualities or character of a person or animal

•helping them to realize the nature of their problems 帮助他们认识他们问题的本质

•it's not in her nature to listen to advice 听取建议不是她的天性

novel 小说

Ø 新的;新颖的;新奇not like anything known before, and unusual or interesting

•What a novel idea! 多么新奇的想法呀!

O

obscure 朦胧的

Ø 搞混,使难理解to make something difficult to know or understand

Ø 遮蔽;使朦胧;使听不清to prevent something from being seen or heard clearly

•Recent successes have obscured the fact that the company is still in trouble. 近来的成功掩盖了公司依然处于困境的事实。

•The view was obscured by mist. 薄雾中景色朦胧。

operate 操作;动手术

Ø 〔企业或机构在某处或以某种方式〕经营,营业,活动if a business or organization operates in a particular place or way, it works in that place or way

Ø 起…作用,作…用to have a particular purpose

Ø 〔士兵或警察在某地区〕行动,执行公务if soldiers or police officers are operating in an area, they are working in that area

•They were trying to reduce operating costs. 他们在设法降低经营成本。

•The foam operates as a very effective filter. 这些泡沫材料能起到很有效的过滤作用。

•Security patrols now operate in some of the most dangerous parts of the city. 目前,治安巡逻队正在该城市最危险的一些地区执行任务。

opinion 意见;主张

Ø 舆论the beliefs or views of a large number or majority of people about a particular thing

Ø (正式的)专家意见;鉴定a formal statement of advice by an expert on a professional matter

•the changing climate of opinion.正在变化的舆论氛围。

•When choosing an insurance policy it’s best to get an independent opinion. 选择保险时,最好听听专家的独立意见。

outstanding 杰出的;显著的

Ø 尚未完成的;有待解决的;未付的not yet done, solved, or paid

•We’ve got quite a few debts still outstanding. 我们有许多债务尚未偿还。

P

pace 步速;步伐

Ø (发生、进展、发展的)速度;速率the speed or rate at which something happens,changes,or develops

Ø 测试某人/某物的本领[性能];使某人/某物展示本领[性能]to make a person, vehicle, animal etc show how well they can do something

•the industrial boom gathered pace 工业繁荣加速了

•The test driver puts all the cars through their paces. 试车手测试了所有的车辆。

paper 

Ø 试卷;答卷a set of printed questions used as an examination in a particular subject, and the answers people write

Ø (研究)论文;(学术)讲话a piece of writing or a talk on a particular subject by someone who has made a study of it

Ø 〔工作、会议等上用的〕文件pieces of paper with writing on them that you use in your work, at meetings etc

Ø 证明;证件〔如护照、身份证等〕official documents such as your passport , identity card etc

Ø 隐瞒[掩盖]分歧[困难]to try to hide disagreements or difficulties

•an exam paper 考卷

•a scientific paper 科学论文

•I left some important papers in my briefcase. 我把一些重要文件落在公文包里了。

•My papers are all in order (= they are legal and correct ) . 我的证件全都是合法有效的。

•We need to discuss disagreements honestly without papering over the cracks. 我们应该开诚布公地讨论分歧而不是遮遮掩掩。

penetrate 渗透;穿透

Ø 洞察,了解(复杂或神秘事情)succeed in understanding or gaining insight into(something complex or mysterious)

Ø 被某人完全理解(或意识到)be fully understood or realized by someone

•a magician who seemed to have penetrated the mysteries of nature.-位好像已经洞察自然界秘密的魔术师。

•as his words penetrated,she saw a mental picture of him with Dawn.随着对他的话的理解,她脑海里出现了他和道恩在一起的画面。

performance 表演

Ø 〔汽车或机器的〕性能how well a car or other machine works

Ø 麻烦,费事a process that takes a lot of unnecessary time and effort

Ø 履行,执行;完成the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action,task,or function

•The car’s performance on mountain roads was impressive. 这辆汽车在山路上的性能令人惊叹。

•Shopping at the markets turned out to be quite a performance. 在那些市场购物原来这么麻烦。

•the continual performance of a single task reduces a man to the level of a machine.连续做一种工作能把人变成机器。

picture 照片,图画

Ø 〔某地方、组织等的〕情况,局面the general situation in a place, organization etc

Ø 〔脑中的〕形象;印象an image or memory that you have in your mind

Ø 描绘,描述to describe something in a particular way

Ø 想象;设想;忆起to imagine sb/sth; to create an image of sb/sth in your mind

•The worldwide picture for tribal people remains grim. 全球各地部落民众的情况仍不容乐观。

•He had a vivid picture in his mind. 他脑中有清晰的印象。

•She’s been pictured as a difficult, demanding woman. 她被描绘成一个难以相处的苛刻女人。

•I can still picture the house I grew up in. 我还能回忆起我童年时住的那座房子。

pioneer 先锋

Ø 开发,开拓;开辟,开创,创办develop or be the first to use or apply(a new method,area of knowledge,or activity)

•he pioneered the use of television in lessons.他开创了在教学中使用电视的做法。

press 压;按

Ø 记者;新闻工作者;新闻界the journalists and photographers who work for newspapers and magazines

Ø 人群;拥挤a closely packed crowd or mass of people or things

Ø 竭力要求;坚持;强调forcefully put forward(an opinion,claim,or course of action)

Ø 出版社;印刷厂a business that prints or publishes books

Ø 受到媒体批评/好评If someone or something gets bad press, they are criticized, especially in the newspapers, on television, or on radio. If they get good press, they are praised.

•among the press of cars he saw a taxi.在拥挤的车群中他看到一辆出租车。

•The Press was/were not allowed to attend the trial. 庭审谢绝新闻采访。

•Rose did not press the point.罗斯没有坚持这点。

•the Clarendon Press.牛津大学出版社。

•...the bad press that career women consistently get in this country. …在这个国家职业女性一贯受到的媒体批评一家先前不知名。

prize 奖品;奖赏

Ø 珍视,高度重视to think that someone or something is very important or valuable

Ø 完全的;彻底的complete;utter

Ø 优秀的;典范性的;出类拔萃的being a very good example of its kind

•He is someone who prizes truth and decency above all things. 他把真理和正派看得高于一切。

•you must think I'm a prize idiot.你一定以为我是个大傻瓜。

•a prize student 模范学生

problem 难题;困难

Ø 疾病something wrong with your health or with part of your body

•Does she have any long-term health problems? 她有什么慢性病吗?

put 

Ø (以某一方式、形式、语言)表达(思想,评论)express(a thought or comment)in a particular way,form,or language

Ø 使处于某一状态(或境地)bring into a particular state or condition

Ø 使工作;使做…;利用to make someone or something work or do something, or to use it

Ø 指定.….的价值(或数字、限度)assign a particular value,figure,or limit to

Ø 〔在…上〕书写;做〔标记〕to write or print something or to make a mark with a pen or pencil

•to put it bluntly,he was not really divorced.坦率地说,他没有正式离婚。

•they tried to put me at ease 他们尽量使我放松情绪

•a scheme to put unemployed people to work on government construction projects 让失业人员参与政府施工项目的计划

•it is very difficult to put a figure on the size of the budget.很难指出预算大小的具体数字。

•Put your name at the top of each answer sheet. 在每张答卷的顶端写上你的名字。

Q

quarter 四分之一;季度;

Ø 区,地区an area of a town

Ø 〔尤指用人或军人的〕宿舍,住房;营房the rooms that are given to someone to live in as part of their job, especially servants or soldiers

•I found a small flat in the student quarter. 我在学生居住区找到一间小公寓。

•The top floor provided living quarters for the kitchen staff. 顶层是厨房员工的住处。

question 问题;疑问

Ø 怀疑;对…提出质疑[异议]to have or express doubts about whether something is true, good, necessary etc

•No one dared to question his decisions. 没人敢质疑他的决定。

R

read 阅读

Ø (段落,文本,标志)载有,写着(of a passage,text,or sign)contain or consist of specified words;have a certain wording

Ø (度量仪器]显示,指示if a measuring instrument reads a particular number,it shows that number

Ø 看出,觉察出,洞悉(事实,感情,品质)discern(a fact,emotion,or quality)in someone's eyes or expression

Ø 懂得;理解to understand sth in a particular way

Ø (人)书读得多的,有学问的,知识渊博的(of a person)knowledgeable and informed as a result of extensive reading

•the placard read"We want justice'.标语牌上写着“我们要公平”。

•The thermometer read 46 degrees.温度计显示46度。

•she looked down,terrified that he would read fear on her face.她低下头,害怕他觉察到自己脸上的恐惧表情。

•How do you read the present situation? 你对目前的形势有何看法?

•Ada was well read in French and German literature.艾达对法国和德国文学涉猎甚广。

remote 遥远的;偏僻的

Ø 相差很大的;极不相同的very different from sth

Ø 〔机会或可能性〕渺茫的,微乎其微的if a chance or possibility of something happening is remote, it is not very likely to happen

Ø 遥远的,久远的,远古的far away in time

•His theories are somewhat remote from reality. 他的理论有点儿脱离现实。

•The prospect of peace seems remote. 实现和平的希望似乎很渺茫。

•the remote time when dinosaurs walked the earth 恐龙霸行天下的远古时代

respect 尊敬;遵守

Ø (事物的)方面,细节a particular aspect or detail of sth

•In this respect we are very fortunate. 在这方面,我们是很幸运的。

rule 规则

Ø 判定,裁定〔尤指法律问题〕to make an official decision about something, especially a legal problem

Ø 统治,治理to have the official power to control a country and the people who live there

Ø 〔情感或欲望〕控制,支配if a feeling or desire rules someone, it has a powerful and controlling influence on their actions

•The judge ruled that she should have custody of the children. 法官判定孩子的监护权归她。

•Queen Victoria ruled England for 64 years. 维多利亚女王统治英格兰64年。

•the passion for power and success which rules her life 支配着她生活的对权力和成功的强烈渴望

S

sandwich 三明治

Ø 被夹在…中间to be in a very small space between two other things

•A layer of transparent material is sandwiched between the pieces of glass. 一层透明材料夹在玻璃中间。

satisfaction 满意,满足

Ø 赔偿,补偿what is felt to be owed or due to one,especially in reparation of an injustice or wrong

•the work will come to a halt if the electricity and telephone people don't get satisfaction.如果电力和电话公司的员工得不到补偿的话,工作将会陷于停顿。

school 学校

Ø (大学的)系;科;院a department or faculty of a university concerned with a particular subject of study

Ø 学派,流派a number of people who are considered as a group because of their similar style of work

Ø 训练;教育to train or teach someone to have a certain skill, type of behaviour, or way of thinking

Ø <喻>成长环境used to describe the type of circumstances in which someone was brought up

Ø 群a large number of fish or other sea animals, swimming together

•the School of Dental Medicine.牙科医学系。

•the Impressionist school 印象派

•She was schooled in hiding her emotions. 她被教育要隐藏自己的情绪。

•I was brought up in a hard school and I don't forget it.我成长于艰苦环境,我不会忘记。

•a school of dolphins 一群海豚

science 科学;技术

Ø 学科a systematically organized body of knowledge on a particular subject

•the science of criminology.犯罪学,刑事学。

screen 屏,幕;屏风

Ø 隐藏,遮蔽,隐蔽if something screens something else, it is in front of it and hides it

Ø 筛查,检查to do tests on a lot of people to find out whether they have a particular illness

Ø 放映〔影片〕;播放〔电视节目〕to show a film or television programme

Ø 分析;评估evaluate or analyse(something)for its suitability for a particular purpose or application

Ø 影视;电影业(the screen)flms or television;the film industry

•A line of trees screened the house from the road. 一排树木把这幢房子遮蔽起来,从马路上

•All women over 50 will be regularly screened. 所有50岁以上女性都将定期接受检查。

•The film is being screened around the country. 这部电影正在全国放映。

•only one per cent of rainforest plants have been screened for medical use.只有百分之一的雨林植物进行了医疗用途分析评估。

•she's a star of the track as well as the screen.她既是电影明星,又是径赛明星。

share 分享

Ø 共享;共用,合用to have or use something with other people

Ø 股,股份one of the equal parts into which the ownership of a company is divided

Ø 分担〔责任〕;分摊〔费用〕to have equal responsibility for doing something, paying for something etc

Ø 共同拥有〔某种看法、特质或经历〕to have the same opinion, quality, or experience as someone else

•We don't have enough books so you'll have to share.我们书不够,所以你们得合着用。

•We’ve got shares in Allied Chemicals. 我们有联合化工的股份。

•We share the responsibility for the children. 我们共同承担照顾孩子的责任。

•I believe my view is widely shared . 我相信我的观点为许多人所认同。

significant 重大的;有意义的;意味深长的

Ø 相当数量的;影响明显的large enough to be noticeable or have noticeable effects

•A significant number of drivers fail to keep to speed limits. 有相当多的司机不遵守车速限制。

simply 简单地

Ø 实在,根本,简直〔用于强调所说的话〕used to emphasize what you are saying

Ø 仅仅,只是only

•This work is simply not good enough. 这工作做得实在不够好。

•It’s not simply a question of money. 这不仅仅是钱的问题。

spring 春天

Ø 泉,泉源a place where water comes up naturally from the ground

Ø 弹性,弹力the ability to spring back strongly;elasticity

Ø 跳,跳跃,跳起to move suddenly and quickly in a particular direction, especially by jumping

Ø 涌现,涌出;惊现(spring up)suddenly develop or appear

Ø 突然向某人提供(或提出)(spring something on)present or propose something suddenly 发源于;来自(spring from)originate or arise from

Ø or unexpectedly to(someone)

Ø 突然启动;突然运转operate suddenly by means of a mechanism

•spring water 泉水

•the mattress has lost its spring.这床垫已经没有弹性了。

•He sprang to his feet (= stood up suddenly ) and rushed after her. 他腾地站起身,冲过去追她。

•a terrible storm sprang up.突然来了一场可怕的暴风雨。

•we decided to spring a surprise on them.我们决定要让他们大吃一惊。

•madness and creativity could spring from the same source.疯狂和创造力可能来源相同。

•the engine sprang into life.机器突然运转起来。

still 仍然

Ø [与比较级连用表示强调]甚至,还要even(used with comparatives for emphasis)

Ø 静止的;平静的;安静的;寂静的not moving; calm and quiet

Ø 不含碳酸气的;不起泡的not containing bubbles of gas; not fizzy

Ø (电影或录像的)定格画面;剧照a photograph of a scene from a film/movie or video

•write,or better still,type,captions for the pictures为那些相片书写,或者更好的是,打印说明文字

•still water 平静的水面

•still mineral water 无汽矿泉水

•a publicity still from his new movie 他的新电影的广告剧照

storm 暴风雨

Ø 猛烈攻击,突然袭击〔某地〕to suddenly attack and enter a place using a lot of force

Ø 强烈的反应;骚动;论战a tumultuous reaction;an uproar or controversy

Ø (感情或反应的)爆发,迸发a violent or noisy outburst of a specified feeling or reaction

•An angry crowd stormed the embassy. 愤怒的人群突然袭击大使馆。

•the book caused a storm in America 那本书在美国掀起了轩然大波

•the disclosure raised a storm of protest.这一披露激起了抗议风暴。

story 故事;小说

Ø 楼层a floor or level of a building

Ø (对人的一生或事物发展所经历事情的)叙述,描述an account of past events in someone's life or in the evolution of something

Ø (报纸、杂志、新闻广播的)新闻报道,记事a report of an item of news in a newspaper,magazine,or news broadcast

Ø <非正式>假话;错误的解释;谎话a false statement or explanation;a lie

Ø 内情,实情,详情a situation viewed in terms of the information known about it or its similarity to another

Ø (公司的)商业前景,商业现状the commercial prospects or circumstances of a particular company

•a 50-story building 一幢50层的大楼

•the story of modern farming 现代农业发展史话

•stories in the local papers.地方报纸的新闻报道。

•Ellie never told stories-she had always believed in the truth.埃莉从没说过谎,她一直相信事实。

•having such information is useful,but it is not the whole story 有那样的信息是有用的,但它并不能解决一切问题

•profitable businesses with solid stories.发展前景良好的有利可图的企业。

sweep 扫除;打扫

Ø 迅速蔓延(或席卷)affect(an area or place)swiftly and widely

Ø 〔大面积的〕搜索,搜查;扫荡a search or attack that moves over a large area

Ø 步态轻盈地走;大模大样地走to move quickly and/or smoothly, especially in a way that impresses or is intended to impress other people

•violence swept the country 暴力席卷了全国

•He watched the helicopter make a sweep over the beach. 他看着直升机在海滩上空搜索。

•Without another word she swept out of the room. 她再没说话,大模大样地走出房间。

T

tell 告诉,说

Ø 显示;提示;说明to give information in ways other than talking

Ø 识别,辨别,分辨to be able to see how one person or thing is different from another

Ø 泄密;泄露divulge confidential or private information

Ø 产生(不良)效果,发生(负面)影响(of an experience or period of time)have a noticeable,typically harmful,effect on someone

•The light tells you when the machine is ready. 机器就绪后提示灯会亮。

•Can you tell the difference between sparkling wine and champagne? 你能区分气泡酒和香槟的差别吗?

•promise you won't tell.你保证不泄密。

•the strain of supporting the family was beginning to tell on him.养家糊口的重负开始让他吃不消了。

theatre 电影院,戏院

Ø (事件发生的)场所the area in which something happens

•a new theatre of war has been opened up.新的战区已经开辟。

thumb 拇指

Ø 用拇指翻动;翻阅turn over(pages)with or as if with one's thumb

Ø 竖起拇指向过路汽车要求(免费搭乘)request or obtain(a free ride in a passing vehicle)by signalling with one's thumb

•I've thumbed my address book and found quite a range of smaller hotels 我翻看我的通讯录,发现里面记了一长串的小旅馆

•three cars passed me and I tried to thumb a lift 三辆车经过我身边,我伸出拇指想

tie 领带

Ø 束缚,约束;限制,局限(常作be tied)restrict or limit(someone)to a particular situation,occupation,or place

Ø 〔人、团体或国家之间的〕关系,联系a strong relationship between people, groups, or countries

Ø 〔比赛、竞赛或选举中〕分数相同,票数相同,平局,平手the result of a game, competition, or election when two or more people or teams get the same number of points, votes etc

•she didn't want to be like her mother,tied to a feckless man.她可不想像她母亲,受制于一个不负责任的男人。

•the importance of strong family ties 家庭关系密切的重要性

•The match ended in a tie. 这场比赛以平局告终。

traffic 交通

Ø 〔秘密进行的〕非法买卖,非法交易the secret buying and selling of illegal goods

Ø 信息流量;通信(量)the movement of messages and signals through an electronic communication system

•drugs traffic 毒品买卖

•the computer servers that manage global Internet traffic 管理全球互联网通信的计算机服务器

train 火车;训练

Ø a train of sth一系列,一连串〔相关事件或行动〕a series of events or actions that are related

•The decision set off a train of events which led to his resignation. 这一决定引发了一连串事件,最终导致了他的辞职。

U

umbrella 雨伞

Ø 〔包括多种含义的〕概括词/总称等a word whose meaning includes many different types of a particular thing

Ø 保护伞the protection given by a powerful country, army, a weapons system etc

Ø 多成分组成物;综合机构a thing that includes or contains many different elements or parts

•District nurses, health visitors, and school nurses will come under the umbrella term ‘community nursing’. 地区护士、健康访视员和学校护士都归在“社区护理”这个总称下面。

•the American nuclear umbrella over western Europe 美国向西欧提供的核保护伞

•an umbrella organization.综合性机构。

understand 理解;懂

Ø 获悉;据信;听说to believe or think that something is true because you have heard it or read it

Ø …不言而喻;达成共识if something is understood, everyone knows it, or has agreed to it, and there is no need to discuss it

•‘I understand that he was 62 when he died,’ McLeish said. “据我所知他是 62 岁时去世的。”麦克利什说。

•From childhood it was understood that your parents would choose your husband. 从小你就知道父母会为你挑选丈夫。

undo 取消;撤消

Ø 消除.….影响或结果;使恢复原状cancel or reverse the effects or results of(a previous action or measure)

•there wasn't any way Evelyn could undo the damage.伊芙琳根本无法消除那损害所造成的影响。

uniform 制服

Ø 全部相同的,一致的being the same in all its parts or among all its members

•Grade A eggs must be of uniform size. A 级鸡蛋必须大小相同。

V

value 价值

Ø 尊重,重视consider(someone or something)to be important or beneficial;have a high opinion of

Ø 价值观念,标准(values)a person's principles or standards of behaviour;one's judgement of what is important in life

Ø 给…估价,给…估值to decide how much money something is worth, by comparing it with similar things

•she had come to value her privacy and independence 她开始重视自己的隐私和独立性

•they internalize their parents'rules and values.他们继承了父母的准则和价值观。

•We decided to get the house valued. 我们决定给房子估一估价。

ventilate 使通风;给…装通风设备

Ø 公开讨论(或调查)(意见、问题、抱怨等)discuss or examine(an opinion,issue,complaint,etc.)in public

•he used the club to ventilate an ongoing complaint.他利用俱乐部讨论眼下的一种怨言。

venture 冒险

Ø (尤指有风险的)企业,商业,投机活动,经营项目a business project or activity, especially one that involves taking risks

•A disastrous business venture lost him thousands of dollars. 一个彻底失败的经营项目使他损失严重。

very 非常,很

Ø 同一的,正是的,恰好的〔用以加强语气〕used to emphasize that you are talking exactly about one particular thing or person

Ø (强调形容词最高级或置于own前)完全,十足used to emphasize a superlative adjective or before own

•He died in this very room. 他就是在这个房间里去世的。

•They wanted the very best quality. 他们要最好的质量。

W

wage 工资,工钱

Ø 发动,进行〔战争或斗争〕to be involved in a war against someone, or a fight against something

•The police are waging war on drug pushers in the city. 警方正在市内开展一场打击毒贩的斗争。

wake 醒来;唤醒

Ø <喻>引起,激起,唤起cause(something)to stir or come to life

Ø <喻>后果,结果used to refer to the aftermath or consequences of something

•it wakes desire in others.这引起了他人的欲望。

•the committee was set up in the wake of the inquiry.委员会是在经过调查之后成立的。

want 要;想要

Ø 缺乏,缺少〔某物,因而受苦〕to suffer because you do not have something

Ø (警方)缉拿;追捕(嫌疑犯)(一般作be wanted)(of the police)desire to question or apprehend(a suspected criminal)

•In many poorer countries, people still want basic food and shelter. 在许多贫困国家,人们仍然缺少必需的食物和住处。

•he is wanted by the police in connection with an arms theft.他因与一起武器盗窃案有牵连而被警方通辑。

way 方法;道路

Ø (个人的)风格,习惯,作风a person's characteristic or habitual manner of behaviour or expression

Ø (群体的)习俗;习惯(ways)the customary modes of behaviour or practices of a group

Ø 很远;大量very far; by a large amount

•it was not his way to wait passively for things to happen.被动等待事情发生不是他的风格。

•my years of acclimatization to British ways.我适应英国风俗习惯的岁月。

•She finished the race way ahead of the other runners. 她遥遥领先于其他选手跑到终点。

wear 穿;戴;佩戴

Ø 面露,面带;呈现,表现exhibit or present(a particular facial expression or appearance )

•they a frozen smile on their faces.他们面带冰冷的微笑。

weather 天气;气候

Ø (因受风吹、日晒、雨淋等,使)退色,变色,变形to change, or make sth change, colour or shape because of the effect of the sun, rain or wind

Ø 经受住(困难,危险)withstand(a difficulty or danger)

•his skin was weathered almost black by his long outdoor life长期在户外生活,使得他的皮肤几乎变成黑色

•this year has tested industry's ability to weather recession.今年对工业经受衰退的能力是个考验。

weigh 称…重量

Ø 认真考虑,权衡〔某事〕to consider something carefully so that you can make a decision about it

Ø 〔对观点或决定〕有影响to influence someone’s opinion and the decision that they make

•It is my job to weigh the evidence. 认真研究证据是我的职责。

•This unfortunate experience will weigh heavily against further investment in the area. 这次遗憾的经历将大大影响对这个地区的进一步投资。

wind 

Ø (不可阻挡的)影响;趋势,潮流,动向used in reference to an influence or tendency that cannot be resisted

Ø 〔正常的〕呼吸能力your ability to breathe normally

Ø 〔绕着他物〕缠绕,卷绕to turn or twist something several times around something else

Ø 〔道路、河流等〕蜿蜒,曲折前进if a road, river etc winds some-where, it has many smooth bends and is usually very long

Ø 〔为使机器运转或启动而〕摇动[转动]〔把手等〕;给〔机械〕上发条to turn part of a machine around several times, in order to make it move or start working

•a wind熟词僻义是很多考研同学较为头痛的问题,市面有各式各样的单词书,鲜有关于熟词僻义的资料,网上的也是很零碎的总结。鉴于当时自己准备考研英语的苦恼,就决定把自己总结的和网上尽可能能找到的考研熟词僻义全部整理出来,并附带英文解释,同时也是提升自己的一个好方法。收集完所有考研的熟词僻义后,再一一查阅牛津、新牛津、朗文、柯林斯四本英语字典的英文释义,想想哪一个释义是大家都容易忽略的,最后从四本字典中选出一个最具代表性、最易懂、陌生单词最少的英文解释。由于每个人的基础不一样,所以本资料不能保证所有的生僻释义是你不知道的,因此从全稿230页左右中摘选出一部分作为《考研英语熟词僻义大当家——试读版》的电子档供大家了解,由各自衡量本资料的含金量,而不是自己胡乱吹嘘,考研时间本就紧迫,还忽悠别人看没用的资料,那是不道德的。

所有的阅读技巧都是建立在认识单词的基础上,再找套路提高自己的分数。阅读文章时不要把单词割裂出来,而是根据整个句子、整个段落或整篇文章的语境来分析单词的。碰到自己不认识的单词(熟词僻义),一般是先按自己记忆的常见基本释义去理解整句话,若语义不通顺,再凭自己的语感、综合知识储备或好的语文功底用适当的意思填进去理解。但这样做容易出现三个问题:第一,并不是所有人的语感都好,或综合知识面足够广,又或语文功底扎实,阅读长难句时就会显得有些困难;第二,用你以为的“适当的”意思填进去,可能扭曲整个句子的感情色彩和意思,阅读题会影响理解,导致选出错误答案,而翻译题,翻译的准确性直接影响你的分数;第三,考试时间才三个小时,在考场怎么可能让我们去花大把的时间去琢磨某个单词的生僻意思,有些单词还能靠平时记忆的基本释义猜出来,有些单词,没有接触过,怕是很难联想出来。除此之外,我想说的是,熟词僻义并不是真的生僻,一是因为平时记忆的时候很多人只记住了最好记的、最常用的释义,而其它的释义往往就被忽视掉了,比如:

二是因为有些单词书、单词软件只挑选了某个单词的部分释义。这两点说明学英语除了坚持记单词很重要,记全单词释义也是很重要的,

记完单词再去做真题,你会发现,有些单词我们心里知道是什么意思,但是读一个完整的句子就不知道如何翻译,如何用恰当的中文表达出来。很多时候都是熟词僻义的导致的,对于熟词僻义,很多过来人都建议同学边刷真题边记单词并尝试看单词英文释义,或者是记完一轮考纲单词再去刷真题,刷真题时碰到陌生单词再去查字典,那么,问题又来了,查单词是用纸质词典还是电子词典?用纸质书嫌麻烦,手机下个词典,估计“查词五分钟,刷微博、朋友圈两小时”。虽说看单词英文释义的确是一个不错的方法,但对于时间紧迫的应试考试,且不排除你的自制力好的情况下,花大把的时间查单词,似乎有点得不偿失。所以我就决定自己总结一本涵盖考研所有的熟词僻义,且带有英文释义,这样就能减少你英语的复习时间。于是怀着“大当家”的心态整理出《考研英语熟词僻义大当家》,尽可能全面又不鸡肋,让大家使用该资料能对考研英语的熟词僻义一网打尽。

对于考研熟词僻义个人有四点建议

1) 坚持记单词

2) 单词释义要记全

3) 下定决心看英文释义

4) 精读大量文章(即刷真题)

本资料有何效用?

l 可作为英语词汇辅助书,重点关注考研单词盲区,攻克考研熟词僻义。

l 减少猜单词的次数,提高阅读速度。

l 增加翻译准确性。

l 优化写作句子。

强烈推荐看英文释义,就和我们小时候学习中文一样,查新华字典看中文解释,看其基本意思,看其搭配。查英语单词也一样,看单词的搭配、用法、感情色彩等等。对单词了解的越深,阅读文章的速度也就越快,翻译也就越准确,写作使用的词汇也更高级。

资料最后附有“艾宾浩斯遗忘曲线的复习表格”,本资料虽然页数有230页,但单词都是常见的,按照表格记忆——>复习——>记忆——>复习,能高效持久的记忆完1000多个单词,后面的复习表格行数也是绰绰有余。

由于本人水平有限,内容较多,时间仓促,书中不妥之处在所难免,诚望广大读者不吝赐教,提出宝贵意见。

A

about 关于;大约

Ø 向相反方向,转身,掉头so as to face in the opposite direction

Ø [表达在特定场所的位置]在里面各处,四下used to express location in a particular place

•He quickly turned about and walked away. 他一个转身就走了。

•a thief about in the hotel.在旅馆里四下行窃的小偷。

absence 缺席

Ø 缺乏;没有the lack of something or the fact that it does not exist

•In the absence of any evidence, the police had to let Myers go. 警察没有证据,只好把迈尔斯放了。

accent 口音

Ø 显出,突出;强调to make something more noticeable so that people will pay attention to it

Ø 重音the part of a word that you should emphasize when you say it

•Use make-up to accent your cheekbones and eyes. 用化妆来突出颧骨和眼部。

•In the word ‘dinner’ the accent is on the first syllable. dinner一词的重音在第一音节上。

account 账户

Ø 叙述,描写,报道a written or spoken deion that says what happens in an event or process

Ø on account of sth因为某事,由于某事because of something else, especially a problem or difficulty

Ø 重要性importance

Ø 解释,说明to give a satisfactory explanation of why something has happened or why you did something

Ø 认为,看作consider or regard in a specified way

•He was too shocked to give an account of what had happened. 他因受惊过度而无法描述所发生的事情。

•She was told to wear flat shoes, on account of her back problem. 因为背部有问题,她被建议穿平底鞋。

•money was of no account to her.金钱对她无关紧要。

•Can you account for your movements on that night? 你能说明一下你那天晚上的行踪吗?

•he accounted himself the unluckiest man alive.他认为自己是世上最倒霉的人。

act 行为,行动

Ø 【律】(议会、国会等的书面)法令,条例a written ordinance of Parliament,Congress,etc.

Ø act as充当,担任fulfil the function or serve the purpose of

Ø 假装;装腔作势to pretend to have feelings, qualities etc that are different from your true ones

Ø 起作用;见效take effect;have a particular effect

•the 1989 Children's Act.1989年《儿童法》。

•they need volunteers to act as foster-parents.他们需要志愿者来充当养父母。

•When he’s angry, he acts the fool. 他一生气就装傻。

•bacteria act on proteins and sugar.细菌对蛋白质和糖起作用。

acquire 获得;取得

Ø 学到,习得,培养(技能,习惯,品质)learn or develop(a skill,habit,or quality)

Ø an acquired taste逐渐养成的爱好something that people only begin to like after they have tried it a few times

•He spent years acquiring his skills as a surgeon. 他花了许多年时间学习外科医生的技能。

•pumpkin pie is an acquired taste.喜欢吃南瓜馅饼是后天养成的嗜好。

address 地址

Ø (多指正式)对.….讲话,致词speak to(a person or an assembly),typically in a formal way

Ø 诉说,书面提交(address something to)say or write remarks or a protest to

Ø 考虑处理(问题)think about and begin to deal with(an issue or problem)

•she addressed the open-air meeting 她在一露天集会上致词

•address your complaints to the Trading Standards Board.向贸易标准委员会提交你的投诉。

•a fundamental problem has still to be addressed.还有一个基本问题要处理。

adjust 适应

Ø 整理〔穿戴物〕if you adjust something you are wearing, you move it slightly so that it is neater, more comfortable etc

•He paused to adjust his spectacles. 他停下来整整眼镜。

advise 建议

Ø (尤指正式地、官方地)通知inform(someone)about a fact or situation,typically in a formal or official way

•you will be advised of the requirements 具体要求会通知你的

afloat 飘浮的

有偿债能力;能维持下去having enough money to pay debts; able to survive

•They will have to borrow £10 million next year, just to stay afloat . 明年他们得举债1 000万英镑才能维持下去。

after 在……之后

Ø 与…对照;与…对比in contrast to sth

Ø 由于;既然because of something that happened earlier

Ø 追求,寻求in pursuit or quest of

Ø 具有…的风格,模仿in the same style as a particular painter, musician etc

•It was pleasantly cool in the house after the sticky heat outside. 与户外的湿热相比,屋里真是凉爽惬意。

•I’m not surprised he walked out, after the way she treated him. 她那样对待他,所以他离开我并不感到吃惊。

•most of them are after money.他们中大多数人在追求金钱。

•a painting after Rembrandt 仿伦勃朗风格的画

air 空气

Ø 摆架子;装腔作势a way of behaving that shows that sb thinks that they are more important, etc. than they really are

Ø 神态;样子;风度;气氛if something or someone has an air of confidence, mystery etc, they seem confident, mysterious etc

Ø 公开发表〔看法〕to express your opinions publicly

Ø 播放,广播to broadcast a programme on television or radio

•I hate the way she puts on airs . 我不喜欢她那装腔作势的样子。

•She looked at him with a determined air. 她看着他,神情坚毅。

•Staff will get a chance to ask questions and air their views. 员工将有机会提问并发表意见。

•The program is due to air next month. 这个节目将于下月播出。

album 相簿

Ø (唱片或盒式磁带等上的)音乐专辑,歌曲专辑;歌集唱片a collection of pieces of music that have been recorded on one record, CD or cassette

•the band's latest album 这个乐队的最新专辑

alien 外星人

Ø 陌生(而令人烦扰或讨厌)的unfamiliar and disturbing or distasteful

Ø 外国的,异域的;异族的belonging to another country or race

•the alien environment of the city 城里陌生的环境。

•alien cultures 异域文化

anchor 锚;抛锚

Ø 电视〕新闻节目主持人,主播someone who reads the news on TV and introduces news reports

Ø 支柱;靠山someone or something that provides a feeling of support and safety

Ø 扎根于〔某种体系、生活方式等〕to be strongly connected with a particular system, way of life etc

•Dan Rather, anchor of the CBC Evening News 哥伦比亚广播公司《晚间新闻》主持人丹•拉瑟

•Dad was the anchor of the family. 爸爸是家里的顶梁柱。

•John’s outlook has always been anchored in the political mainstream. 约翰的观点一直植根于主流政治思想。

answer 回答

Ø 适合;符合;比得上;相配to be suitable for sth; to match sth

Ø (地位、作用等方面的)对应物;相当的人(answer to)a thing or person regarded as being of equivalent status or fulfilling the same role as something or someone from another place

Ø 对...负责;因.…受到谴责(answer for)be responsible or to blame for

•entrepreneurship is necessary to answer the needs of national and international markets.满足国内和国际市场的需要必须要有企业开拓精神。

•the press called her Britain's answer to Marilyn Monroe.新闻界称她为英国的玛里莲•梦露。

•if you persist in clinging to me in that way I will not answer for the consequences如果你坚持用那样的方式缠我,我不会对后果负责

argue 争论

Ø 论证;争辩to state, giving clear reasons, that something is true, should be done etc

Ø 显示出,表明to show that something clearly exists or is true

•She argued the case for changing the law. 她提出论据,力主修改法律。

•The statement argues a change of attitude by the management. 这则声明表明管理层态度的转变。

arm 手臂

Ø 以武器装备,武装to provide weapons for yourself, an army, a country etc in order to prepare for a fight or a war

Ø 提供;配备,装备to provide all the information, skills, or equipment you need to do something

•The local farmers have armed themselves with rifles and pistols. 当地的农场主用步枪和手枪武装自己。

•Arm yourself with all the facts you need to argue your case. 你要准备好证明你观点所需的全部论据。

arrival 到来;到达

Ø (新发展、新现象或新产品的)出现the emergence or appearance of a new development,phenomenon,or product

•the arrival of democracy.民主的出现。

article 文章

Ø 物品,物件〔尤指整套中的一件〕formal a thing, especially one of a group of things

Ø (法律文件或协议中的)条款,条文,规定(多指概述一规则或规定的)。a separate clause or paragraph of a legal document or agreement,typically one outlining a single rule or regulation

•household articles 家居用品

•he is already in articles 他已经按合同规定在实习了

author 作者;作家

Ø (尤指计划或主意的)创始者,发起人an originator or creator of something,especially a plan or idea

Ø 创作,写作,撰写to be the writer of a book, report etc

•the authors of the peace plan.和平计划的创始人。

•she has authored several articles on wildlife.她写了几篇关于野生动物的文章。

authority 权力;权威

Ø 官方机构;政府部门an official organization or a government department that has the power to make decisions, and has particular responsibilities

Ø 〔正式的〕许可,授权official permission to do something

•the local 地方政府部门

•The attack took place under the authority of the UN Security Council. 这次进攻是在联合国安全理事会授权下进行的。

automatic 自动的

Ø 不自觉的,无意识的,不假思索的done without thinking, especially because you have done the same thing many times before

Ø 〔根据规定或法律〕必然发生的,自动的something that is automatic always happens as a result of something you have done, especially because of a rule or law

•Practise the breathing techniques until they become automatic. 练习这些呼吸技巧直到成为无意识的动作。

•Littering results in an automatic fine. 乱扔垃圾必然要罚款。

attribute 归属;把…归于

Ø 特性,特质,属性a quality or feature, especially one that is considered to be good or useful

•What attributes should a good manager possess? 一名优秀的经理应该具备哪些素质?

average 平均的

Ø 〔数量〕中等的,适中的an amount or quantity is not unusually big or small

Ø 平常的,普通的having qualities that are typical of most people or things

•They have an average-size front garden and a large rear garden. 他们有一个中等大小的前院和一个大后院。

•The average American has not even thought about next year’s election. 普通的美国人甚至还没有想过明年的选举。

bad 坏的

Ø 很,非常〔很多人认为此用法是错的〕a word used to mean ‘badly’ that many people think is incorrect

Ø (疼痛、危险或其他不良后果)严重的;厉害的(of something causing pain,danger,or other unwelcome consequences)severe or intense

Ø 无价值的;伪造的worthless;not valid

•I need that money bad. 我急需那笔钱。

•bad headaches 剧烈的头痛

•he ran up 87 bad cheques.他开了87张空头支票。

balance 平衡

Ø (应付与所付的)结欠,差额the difference between an amount due and an amount paid

Ø 抵偿;权衡;比较offset or compare the value of(one thing)with another

•the holiday balance must be paid by 8 weeks before departure.度假应付费用的差额必须在离开前8周付清。

•the cost of obtaining such information needs to be d against its benefits.

获取这种信息的代价需与其好处相比较。

bargain 便宜货

Ø (双方或多方)协定;协议an agreement between two or more people or groups as to what each will do for the other

Ø 预料,指望(bargain for/on)be prepared for;expect

Ø 卑鄙的,下流的,无耻的not having good moral principles

•bargains between political parties supporting the government.支持政府的各政党间的协定。

•I got more information than I'd bargained for 我获得了比预期更多的信息

•base attitudes and desires 卑鄙的态度和欲望

behave 表现

Ø (机器)运转,(自然现象)起作用(of a machine or natural phenomenon)work or function in a specified way

•each car behaves differently.每辆车的运转情况都有差别。

behaviour 行为;举止;态度

Ø 〔科学上的〕表现方式,活动方式;特点the things that something in science normally does

Ø (机器的)运行方式(自然现象的)起作用的方式the way in which a machine or natural phenomenon works or functions

•the behaviour of human chromosomes 人类染色体的特点

•the erratic behaviour of the old car.那辆旧车不稳定的性能。

believe 相信;信任

Ø 认为,以为,猜想hold(something)as an opinion:think or suppose

•I believe we've already met 我想我们见过面。

benefit 利益;有益于

Ø (国家或保险计划按规定支付的)补助费,救济金,抚恤金,保险金payment made by the state or an insurance scheme to someone entitled to receive it,for example an unemployed person

•a state benefit 政府救济金

betray 背叛

Ø 泄露(机密,信息)treacherously reveal(secrets or information)

Ø <喻>显露,暴露;证明reveal the presence of;be evidence of

•many of those employed by diplomats betrayed secrets and sold ciphers.外交官们雇佣的人当中有很多都向外泄露机密、出卖密码。

•she drew a deep breath that betrayed her indignation.她深深地吸了一口气,这说明她很愤怒。

bill 钞票;清单

Ø 议案,法案a written proposal for a new law, that is brought to a parliament so that it can be discussed

Ø 把(人或项目)列入节目单,安排...演出,预定(一般作be billed)list(a person or event)in a programme

Ø 宣传(某人或某物)(bill someone/thing as)describe someone or something in a particular way,especially in order to advertise them or emphasize their importance

•The senator introduced a bill that would increase the minimum wage. 那位参议员提交了一个拟提高最低工资的法案。

•they were billed to appear but did not show up.按计划他们是要出场的,但没有露面。

•he was billed as the new Sean Connery.他被作为“肖恩•康纳里再世”来宣传。

blank 空白的;空虚的

Ø 无表情的,木然的a face or look shows no emotion, understanding, or interest

Ø 掩盖;使模糊不清;使显得空白cover up,obscure,or cause to appear blank or empty

•we were met by blank looks.我们看到的是茫然的表情。

•electronic countermeasures blanked out the radar signals.电子对抗手段消隐了雷达信号。

body 身体;主体

Ø 团体,机构,群体a group of people who work together to do a particular job or who are together for a particular purpose

Ø 大量;大批a large or substantial amount of something;a mass or collection of something

Ø 赋予(抽象事物)以形体,使具体化(body something forth)give material form to something abstract

•The British Medical Association is the doctors’ professional body. 英国医学会是医生的专业团体。

•large bodies of seawater 汪洋大海。

•he bodied forth the traditional Prussian remedy for allills.他把传统的普鲁士药方用于治疗各种疾病。

book 书籍

Ø 成册[成套]的东西a set of things such as stamps, matches, or tickets, held together inside a paper cover

Ø 账目,账簿,会计簿written records of the financial accounts of a business

Ø 预订,预购,预约to make arrangements to stay in a place, eat in a restaurant, go to a theatre etc at a particular time in the future

•a cheque book 支票簿

•An accountant will examine the company’s books. 一名会计师将给公司查账。

•To get tickets, you have to book in advance . 你必须提前订购才能买到票。

boss 老板

Ø 对…发号施令,指挥〔尤指无权这样做时〕to tell people to do things, give them orders etc, especially when you have no authority to do it

•Five-year-old girls love to boss people around. 五岁的女孩就爱支使别人。

brain 脑袋

Ø 智力;脑力;逻辑思维能力the ability to learn quickly and think about things in a logical and intelligent way

•It doesn't take much brain to work out that both stories can't be true. 不必费多大脑筋就知道,两种说法不可能都是真的。

brand 商标,牌子

Ø 归为 (不好的事物)If someone is branded as something bad, people think they are that thing.

Ø 给…加上〔往往是不公的〕恶名(与上面是同一个意思)to describe someone or something as a very bad type of person or thing, often unfairly

Ø (独特的)一种,一类a particular type or kind of something

Ø 独特的个性;自成一格的形象a particular identity or image regarded as an asset

Ø (用烙铁)打烙印于(动物、囚犯或奴隶身上);以烙铁打标记。mark(an animal or,in former times,a criminal or slave)with a branding iron

Ø 全新的;崭新的(brand new) completely new

•anyone who says anything bad about the country is branded as a traitor

任何说这个国家一点坏话的人都被说成是卖国贼。

•Stealing that money has branded Jim for life – no one will trust him again. 吉姆偷了那笔钱,就一辈子背上了恶名,再也没有人信任他。

•they entertained millons with their inimitable brand of comedy.他们以自己那种无法模仿的喜剧让千百万人快乐。

•you can stll invent your own career,be your own brand.你仍然可以构筑自己的职业生涯,保持自己特有的个性。

•Each cow was branded with the ranch’s logo. 每头母牛都烙上了该牧场的标记。

•a brand new computer 全新的计算机

business 商业;[贸易] 生意

Ø 事业,职业;行业a person's regular occupation,profession,or trade

Ø (必须处理的)事务,职责work that has to be done or matters that have to be attended

Ø <非正式>受欢迎的人(行动或事物)(the business)a very enjoyable or popular person,activity,or thing

Ø <非正式>系列事件(尤指丑闻或有损名誉的事)a series of events,typically a scandalous or discreditable one

Ø 公司,企业,商业机构an organization such as a company, shop, or factory that produces or sells goods or provides a service

•she had to do a lot of smiling in her business 干她那行不得不多陪笑脸

•let's get down to business.让我们言归正传吧。

•spring sking is the business.春季滑雪是受欢迎的运动。

•they must find out about the blackmailing business.他们必须查清那件敲诈勒索事件。

•They don’t know how to run a business. 他们不知道如何经营企业。

buy 

Ø 接受,相信〔尤指不大可能属实的事〕to believe something that someone tells you, especially when it is not likely to be true

•I am not prepared to buy the claim that the ends justify the means 我不准备接受只要目的正当就可以不择手段的说法

C

cake 蛋糕

Ø <喻>(某特定情境下被视为可分割或共享的)钱或资产总额(the cake)the amount of money or assets available in a particular context and regarded as something to be divided up or shared

Ø (厚物,粘物)结块(of a thick or sticky substance)dry or harden into a solid mass

•you have not received a fair slice of the education cake.你没有从教育这个蛋糕中分得合理的一份。

•the blood under his nose was beginning to cake.他鼻子下的血开始结块。

camp 露营

Ø 〔尤指政治上的〕阵营,派别,集团a group of people or organizations who have the same ideas or principles, especially in politics

•the extreme right-wing camp of the party 该党的极右派阵营

calculate 计算

Ø 认定,以为;猜测,判断determine by reasoning,experience,or common sense;reckon or judge

Ø 预期,指望;依靠(calculate on)include as an essential element in one's plans

Ø 打算,计划(一般作be calculated to do something)intend(an action)to have a particular effect

•I was bright enough to calculate that she had been on vacation.我聪明地判断出她刚度完假。

•he may have calculated on maximizing pressure for policy revision.他可能指望最大限度地施压以修改政策。

•his last words were calculated to wound her.他最后的那些话是有意伤害她的。

calling 召;呼唤

Ø (对某种生活或职业的)强烈冲动,欲望;使命感,天职a strong urge towards a particular way of life or career;a vocation

Ø 专业;职业a profession or occupation

•those who have a special calling to minister to others'needs.那些有满足别人需求的特别使命感之人。

•he considered engineering one of the highest possible callings.他认为工程师可能是最佳职业之一。

cancer 癌症

Ø 弊病,社会恶习an evil influence that affects a lot of people and is difficult to stop

•Drug abuse is the cancer of our society. 吸毒是我们社会的毒瘤。

cap 盖;帽

Ø 〔收入、支出或借贷金额的〕最高限额an upper limit that is put on the amount of money that someone can earn, spend, or borrow

Ø 覆盖,笼罩(常作be capped)form a covering layer or top part of

Ø 胜过;超过;盖过(前面的故事、评论或笑话)follow or reply to(a story,remark,•a cap on local council spending 地方市政会支出的最高限额

Ø or joke)by producing a better or more apposite one

•snow-capped mountains.山顶积雪的群山。

•he prayed no wit would cap his remark with some repartee.他祈祷没人能超过他略带诡辩的评论。

carry 携带;搬运

Ø 具有〔某种特质〕to have something as a particular quality

Ø 登载;广播;报道if a newspaper, a television or radio broadcast, or a website carries a piece of news, an advertisement etc, it prints it or broadcasts it

Ø 印有;写有if something carries information, the information is written on it

Ø 承担〔责任〕to be responsible for doing something

Ø 销售;出售if a shop/store carries a particular item, it has it for sale

•Degree qualifications carry international recognition. 学位证书获国际认可。

•The national TV network carries religious programmes. 全国电视网播出宗教节目。

•All tobacco products must carry a health warning. 所有的烟草产品必须印有健康警告。

•Each team member is expected to carry a fair share of the workload. 每一位队员都应公平分担工作量。

•We carry a range of educational software. 我们出售各种教育软件。

cat 

Ø 猫科动物a wild animal of the cat family

•the big cats (= lions , tigers , etc.) 大型猫科动物(狮、虎等)

cause 原因;引起;使遭受

Ø 事业,理想,目标an aim, belief or organization that a group of people support or fight for

•My father fought for the Nationalist cause. 我父亲为民族党的事业而奋斗。

ceiling 天花板

Ø <喻>(价格、工资或开支的)最高限度,最大限额,上限。an upper limit,typically one set of prices,wages,or expenditure

Ø 最大飞行高度,升限;云幕高度the greatest height an aircraft can fly at or the level of the clouds

•The government imposed a ceiling on imports of foreign cars. 政府对进口外国汽车的数量设了上限。

•the altitude of the base of a cloud layer 云幂底部高度。

challenge 挑战

Ø 质疑〔某事物的正确性、合法性等〕,对…表示怀疑 to refuse to accept that something is right, fair, or legal

Ø 考验…的技术[能力];激发;激励to test the skills or abilities of someone or something

•a challenge to the legality of the banning order.对禁令合法性的质疑。

•Every teacher ought to be challenging kids to think about current issues. 每一位老师都应激励学生思考当前的问题。

chapter 章,回

Ø (历史上或个人生活中的)特定时期a distinctive period in history or in a person'sife

Ø 一系列;一连串a seres or sequence

Ø 〔俱乐部等大型组织的〕地方分会the local members of a large organization such as a club

•the people are about to begin a new chapter in their history.人民将翻开自己历史上新的篇章。

•the latest episode in a chapter of problems.一系列问题中最新的一个

•the local chapter of the American Legion 美国军团的地方分会

check 检查,核对;<美>支票

Ø 阻碍,制止;抑制to stop something bad from getting worse or continuing to happen

Ø 托运〔行李等〕to leave your bags at an official place so they can be put on a plane or a train, or to take someone’s bags in order to do this

•The police are failing to take adequate measures to check the growth in crime. 警方未能采取适当的措施来阻止犯罪率上升。

•Any luggage over five kilos must be checked. 超过五公斤的行李都必须托运。

climate 气候

Ø 舆论趋势;社会风气the prevailing trend of public opinion or of another aspect of public life

•Small businesses are finding it hard to survive in the present economic climate. 小企业感到在当前的经济形势下很难生存。

cloud 

Ø <喻>阴影;疑团;麻烦;忧虑used to refer to a state or cause of gloom,suspicion,trouble,or worry

Ø 使(事件,心理过程)模糊;使迷惑make(a matter or mental process)unclear or uncertain;confuse

Ø 毁坏,损坏spoil or mar(something)

Ø 显得阴沉(或恐惧、愤怒等);看起来忧愁(或害怕、愤怒等)to show sadness, fear, anger, etc.; to make sb look sad, afraid, angry, etc.

•the only cloud on the immediate horizon is raising a mortgage 眼前惟一的麻烦就是筹措抵押贷款

•don't allow your personal feelings to cloud your judgement.别放任你的个人感情让你判断不清。

•the general election was clouded by violence.大选被暴力事件破坏了。

•Her face clouded over with anger. 她满面怒容。

code 代码,密码

Ø 法典,法规;行为准则,道德规范a set of rules, laws, or principles that tell people how to behave

•The Torah is the basis for all the Jewish laws and their moral code . 《托拉》是所有犹太法律和道德规范的基础。

coin 硬币,钱币

Ø 创造,杜撰〔新词或短语〕to invent a new word or expression, especially one that many people start to use

•The word ‘aromatherapy’ was coined in the 1920s. aromatherapy (芳香疗法)这个词是在20世纪20年代创造出来的。