限制和非限制性定语从句: 限制性定语从句是名词词组不可缺少的一个组成部分, 去掉了会造成病句或意义不明确; 非限制性定语从句属于补充说明性质, 去掉了不会影响主要意义, 通常用逗号与它的先行词分开.
The boys who wanted to play football were disappointed when it rained.
The boys, who wanted to play football, were disappointed when it rained.
如果定语从句的先行词是专有名词, 或是带有形容词性物主代词(my, his, etc)或形容词性指示代词(this, that, etc)作限定词, 其后的定语从句通常都是非限制性的:
Mary Smith, who is in the corner, wants to meet you.
Her mother, who had long suffered form arthritis, died last night.
All these books, which have been donated by visiting professors, are to be used by the postgraduates.
My father, who had been on a visit to America, returned yesterday.
All the books, which had pictures in them, were sent to the little girl.
that, who, whom: 非限制性定语从句, 如果修饰人, 一般用who, 有时用that (作主语时用who较多). 如果关系代词在从句中作宾语, 就应当用宾格 whom 或that, 但在大多数情况下都可以省略掉, 在口语中可用who代替whom.
Here is the man (whom) you’ve been looking for.
He is a man (that) you can safely depend on.
The people (who/that) you were talking to were Swedes.
There are some people here who I want you to meet.
This is the man to whom I referred.
但在口语中一般都把介词放到句子后面去, 这时可用that, 但省略时更多一些.
Have you met the person about whom he was speaking?
Have you met the person (that) he was speaking about
The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin.
The girl (who/that) I spoke to is my cousin.
限制性定语从句如果修饰“物”, 用关系代词that的时候较多, 也有时用which.. 当这个代词在从句中是用作宾语时, 在绝大多数情况下都是省略的, 特别是口语中(尤其是当被修饰的词是all, everything等词时):
Have you everything you need?
(Is there) anything I can do for you?
All you have to do is to press the button.
在介词后只能用which, 在口语中一般都把介词放到从句后部去, 这时可以用that, 但省略的时候更多一些:
The tool with which he is working is called a wrench.
The tool (that) he is working with is called a wrench.
This is the question about which we’ve had so much discussion.
This is the question (that) we’ve had so much discussion about.
定语从句一般是修饰名词或代词的, 但间或也可以修饰整个句子a), 或是句子的一部分 b), 引导词用which:
They have invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of them.
The activity was postponed, which was exactly what we wanted
When deeply absorbed in work, which he often was, he would forget all about eating and sleeping.
She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was.
whose: 在表示“...的”这个概念时, 可用所有格 whose; whose 用于指物, 有时可与of which交替使用, 通常的词序是 名词词组 + of which:
Is there anyone in your class whose family is in the northeast?
We had a meeting whose purpose was completely unclear. (…the purpose of which was…)
He’s written a book the name of which I’ve completely forgotten. (…whose name I’ve…)
of which前的名词词组也可以由some, any, none, all, both, several, enough, many, most, few以及基数词担任; 这些词也能用在 of whom之前.
The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.
It’s a family of eight children, all of whom are studying music.